Case Clostridium defficile on an old man. Have to write assessment and care plan regarding theree different issues and activitie of living

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Old Harvard reference is meant to use, I will upload reference guide as well
– do not write introduction just start from body part. Assignment is 2500 word but I just need 2000 word
– there are three AOL we have to select among 4. Whatever 3 you select, please message me .
– assessment of each AOL , relate how each AOL is affected with disease condition and care plan for three different issues for each AOL are the important things to do here
– also write overview of Clostridium defficile and relate it with his case.write this before you start body part
– don’t use more than 3 web resources
– use Roper Logan Tierney model book to reference and use as much as book you can but use few Journal article
Besides this I will upload assessment details with marking criteria and reference guide. Please review marking criteria and assessment requirements properly. Message me for any query and I will also text you for future help. Thanks

Assessment 2 Assignment
Format Assignment
Due Date Thursday 26th October 2017 at 23:55
Weighting 60%
Pass mark Not applicable
Length 2500 words
 

Details

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Submission

Case study

You are the nurse looking after Mr James, an 82 year old male admitted to the Medical ward with Clostridium difficile (C-Diff). He currently has symptoms of watery diarrhoea, a temperature of 382 degrees Celsius abdominal pain, sudden weight loss and loss of appetite.  Mr James is also complaining of lethargy.

Instructions: Structure your assignment so that it meets the following requirements:

1. Introduction. (approx 250 words). Serves as a “map” of the essay, outlining to the reader the key points contained in the body of the work.

2. Discussion of Activities of Living (AoL’s) related to the Case Study – Maintaining a Safe Environment, Eating and Drinking, Personal Cleansing and Dressing and Elimination

Choose 3 of the four AoL’s and discuss how they have been altered for Mr James.  Your answer must include the following:

·         An overview of how the three AoL’s may be affected

·         How you would assess Mr James in relation to the three identified AoL’s. Include in your answer what care you would provide Mr James

3. Nursing Care Plan. Using the Nursing Care Plan provided identify one issue related to each AoL (3 issues in total) that has arisen from the case study. You are required to formulate a plan/goal for improving each issue, identify strategies for meeting each plan/goal and then discuss what evaluative measures will be taken to determine if each plan/ goal was met.

4. Conclusion (approx 250 words, start a new paragraph). Summarise the key points expressed in the body of the work, as well as the key learning from your research.

 

Refer to marking guide on the next page of this document

Please refer to detailed information on Submission of Assignments specific to your campus/education centre within your Subject Outline

No more than three (3) web based resources are to be used for this assessment

                                     

 

 

 

NMIH 107 Essentials of Care B

Assessment Task 2: Assignment Marking Guide

 

NAME: ………………………………………………………. STUDENT NO: …………………………….

 

 

 

 

 

Criteria

Absent  

Inadequate

 

 

Satisfactory

 

Good

 

Excellent

 

 

 

Marks

Discussion of AoL’s related to case study provide an overview of the three AoL’s and how they relate to the case study  

 

0

 

 

1-4

 

 

5-9

 

 

10-13

 

 

14-15

 

/15

Discussion of AoL’s related to case study discusses with relevant detail what assessments would be undertaken

 

 

 

0

 

 

1-7

 

 

8-13

 

 

13-17

 

 

18-20

 

/20

Discussion of AoL’s related to case study identifies and discusses relevant treatment of symptoms  

 

0

 

 

1-7

 

 

8-13

 

 

13-17

 

 

18-20

 

/20

Nursing Care Plan identifies three relevant issues (one for each AOL) and discusses a plan/goal, identifies relevant strategies for meeting the goal and discusses relevant evaluative strategies for each issue

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

1-4

 

 

 

5-9

 

 

 

10-13

 

 

 

14-15

 

 

/15

 Organisation.

Assignment logically developed. Evidence of introduction, body and conclusion. Evidence of linkage and integration of information. Prescribed format used. Adheres to the word limit.

 

 

0

 

 

1-4

 

 

5-6

 

 

7-8

 

 

9-10

 

/10

Language & Style

Appropriate use of language. Technical terms explained where necessary. Range of vocabulary.

It catches the reader’s attention and promotes the           conveying of information. Objective and authentic writing  style.

 

 

0

 

 

1-4

 

 

5-6

 

 

7-8

 

 

9-10

 

 

/10

Presentation.

Syntax, grammar, punctuation and spelling are correct. Legible presentation. Referencing as per Assessment Handbook.

 

 

0

 

 

1-4

 

 

5-6

 

 

7-8

 

 

9-10

 

/10

             
 
 

This assignment is worth 60% of the total assessment for this subject.

/ 100
  Late Penalty (if applicable):

 

 

 Marker:UOW HARVARD REFERENCING STYLE Why Reference? Referencing is the process of linking what you read with what you write. It is important to reference all your sources: * To enable you or someone else to find the source of your information easily * To avoid plagiarism by acknowledging that you’ve used the ideas and work of others * To strengthen your arguments and add credibility by referring to expert ideas There are several styles of referencing. The Harvard format is utilised by many universities and schools. About the Harvard style of Referencing The Harvard referencing style is also known as the author date system because of the requirement to cite both the author and publication date within in your paper. The prominence of the author and date of publication in a reference list provides a clear indication of the credibility and currency of the resources used in your research. There is no definitive version of Harvard available. The UOW style of referencing is based on the AGPS Harvard version: Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, 6th edn, John Wiley, Milton, Qld. The UOW Harvard Referencing Style has two main components: In-text references/citations When you refer to another author’s work in your writing you must cite your source in the body of your paper by providing the last name(s) of the author(s), the year of publication and, where applicable, page number(s). The reference list A list at the end of your assignment which includes full details of each source you have cited in your writing. Sources are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. In-text Referencing There are two main ways to present in-text references, or citations: 1. Information prominent Where the focus is on the information from your source. You give prominence to the information by placing the reference at the end of your sentence in brackets. For example, “the Nuer of southern Sudan lacked any…” (Metcalf 2005, p. 184) “The experience of …” (Savage, Bagnall & Longhurst 2005, p. 28) 2. Author prominent Where the focus is on the author(s) of your source. You give prominence to the author by placing the reference in the body of your sentence, with the author’s name incorporated into the sentence structure and the date in brackets For example, Metcalf (2005, p. 184) claims that “the Nuer of southern Sudan lacked any institutions of governance; no chiefs or councils of elders, no armies or law enforcement” Savage, Bagnall and Longhurst (2005, p. 28) argue that “…” NOTES * Page Numbers Always include page numbers when you: * Quote word for word * Summarise or paraphrase an idea from a specific page or pages * Refer to tables, figures, images or present specific information like dates/statistics. * Quotation Marks The Harvard (AGPS) and Footnoting (Oxford) manual recommends using SINGLE quotation marks around any direct quote. If you use Turnitin, be sure to enclose all direct quotes in DOUBLE quotation marks because Turnitin recognises only the text enclosed in double quotation marks as a direct quote. In this Referencing and Citing Guide, all Author-Date/Harvard and Footnoting direct quote examples are presented within double quotation marks. Reference List A reference list appears in alphabetical order at the end of your work. Many people confuse the terms ‘reference list’ and ‘bibliography’. A reference list includes ONLY the sources that you have CITED/REFERENCED in the body of your work. A bibliography includes the sources you cited plus any additional resources you may have consulted in your research. This is an example of a reference list: Blair, DJ 1996, ‘Beyond the metaphor: football and war, 1914-1918’, Journal of the Australian War Memorial, no.28, viewed 15/5/2007, http://www.awm.gov.au/journal/j28/j28- blai.htm Department of Veterans’ Affairs 2006, Helpful Links to Veteran Related Sites, viewed 10/8/2006, http://www.dva.gov.au/contacts/site.htm Dolnicar, S, Crouch, GI & Long, P 2008, ‘Environment-friendly tourists: what do we really know about them?’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol.16, no.2, pp. 197-210. Dolnicar, S & Hurliman, A 2010, ‘Australians’ water conservation behaviours and attitudes’, Australian Journal of Water Resources, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 43-53. A History of Reclamation in the West 2000, History Program, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt Lake City, Utah. Malinowski, W, Larsen, AA, Ngu, B & Fairweather, S 1999, Human Geography, Routledge, New York. Preston, AC 1990a, Multivariate Analysis of Nurses’ Absence Behaviour, Business Research and Development Fund of the Confederation of Western Australian Industry, East Perth, WA. Preston, AC 1990b, Theories and Causes of Labour Absence: Reconciling the Economic and Psychology Approaches, Business Research and Development Fund of the Confederation of Western Australian Industry, East Perth, WA. Rose, DB 2002, ‘Good hunters’, in Country of the Heart: An Indigenous Australian Homeland, Aboriginal Studies Press for the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra, pp. 77- 113. NOTES 1. Always check with your academic to determine what is required for your particular assignment. 2. If there are multiple works by the same author in your reference list, put the earliest date first. 3. Make sure the author details and year in the in-text citation exactly match the entry in the reference list. Format In -Text Reference Reference List BOOKS Format In-Text Reference Reference List Book review Direct quote Nadel points to Stoppard’s constant scepticism about autobiography and biography (Carroll 2002, p. 8). Paraphrasing Carroll (2002, p. 8) shows that… Carroll, S 2002, ‘The stuff of theatre’, review of Double act: a life of Tom Stoppard by Ira Nadel, Age, 28 September, Saturday Extra, p. 8. Chapter in an edited book Refer to the author of the chapter in-text. In the Reference List set out the editor’s name with initials first then family name. Put the title of the chapter in ‘single quotes’. Do not italicise. Put (ed.), for a single editor or (eds), for multiple editors followed by a comma. The pages of the chapter are added after the publication details. Direct quote Gray (2009, p. 75) concludes the following “…” Paraphrasing Another demonstration of this is… (Gray 2009, p. 75) Gray, E 2009, ‘The hair of Milton: historicism and literary history’, in DW Davies (ed.), Romanticism, history, historicism: essays on an orthodoxy, Routledge, New York, pp. 32-42. Corporate author – when the author is also the publisher …a better world (Deni Green Consulting Services 2008, p. 5). Deni Green Consulting Services 2008, Capital idea: realising value from environmental and social performance, Deni Green Consulting Services, North Carlton, Victoria. Format In-Text Reference Reference List e-Book In-text referencing and reference list entry is the same for eBooks as print. Direct quote “students taught by teachers with greater verbal ability learn more than those taught by teachers with lower verbal ability” (Stronge 2007, p. 4) Paraphrasing Stronge (2007, p. 4) notes the correlation between… Stronge, JH 2007, Qualities of effective teachers, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA. Edited Book Use the abbreviation ed. for a single editor and eds (no full stop) for more than one editor. Use the abbreviation edn (no full stop) for edition. Write ed., eds and edn in lower case not capitals. Direct quote “Human security…” (eds McGrew & Poku 2007, p. 8). “Hinduism is not defined…” (ed. Flood 2003, p. 5) Paraphrasing According to McGrew and Poku (eds 2007, p. 8)… Flood (ed. 2003, p. 5) comments that Hinduism is… McGrew, A & Poku, NK (eds) 2007, Globalization, development and human security, Polity, Cambridge, UK. Flood, G (ed.) 2003, The Blackwell companion to Hinduism, Blackwell, Oxford. Encyclopedia or dictionary (print) Use the word ‘in’ before the title of the publication. Encyclopedia entry with author Direct quote Smith, MJ 1993, ‘Anarchy’, in The Oxford Companion to the Format In-Text Reference Reference List Encyclopedia entry with no author If no author is evident and a well known source is being cited you can put all the necessary information in-text. You do not need to put this reference in the reference list. Use italics when including the title of the dictionary/encyclopedia in-text. “Anarchy refers to the absence of authoritative institutions or norms above independent sovereign states.” (Smith 1993) Paraphrasing Smith (1993) observes that anarchy places states in a permanent position of rivalry with each other. The Macquarie dictionary (2005) defines a larrikin as… or …(The New Encyclopedia Britannica 1997) Politics of the World, J Krieger (ed.), Oxford University Press, New York. Encyclopedia or dictionary (website) If you have used a dictionary or encyclopedia from a website include the viewed date and URL Direct quote The heel of Achilles is “[t]he vulnerable or weak point in a man’s character or of a nation.” (Dictionary of phrase and fable 2000) Paraphrasing The Dictionary of phrase and fable (2000) defines Achilles’ heel as… ‘Achilles tendon’ 2000, in Dictionary of phrase and fable, EC Brewer (ed.), Bartelby.com, viewed 30 November 2010, . Format In-Text Reference Reference List Encyclopedia or dictionary (online database) If the online encyclopedia is from a library reference database e.g. Gale Virtual Reference or Oxford Reference Online, cite it the same as the print. Do not include the date viewed, the database name or the URL. Direct quote “Descent systems determine…” (Velioti-Georgopoulos 2006). Paraphrasing Velioti-Georgopoulos (2006) emphasises that kinship and descent should be treated as different concepts. Velioti-Georgopoulos, M 2006 ‘Kinship and Descent’, in Encyclopedia of Anthropology, HJ Birx (ed.), vol. 3, Sage Reference, Thousand Oaks, CA. Format In-Text Reference Reference List Multiple authors – Two or three Cite the names of the authors in the order they appear on the title page of the book. Unlike the reference list which requires author/s initials, in-text references use author/s surnames only and do not include initials. When referring to multiple authors in a sentence use ‘and’ instead of ‘&’. When citing the names of multiple authors in brackets use ‘&’ before the last author. Direct quote “The experience of …” (Savage, Bagnall & Longhurst 2005, p. 28) or Savage, Bagnall and Longhurst (2005, p. 28) argue that “…” Paraphrasing The migrant experience is one that… (Savage, Bagnall & Longhurst 2005, p.28) Savage, M, Bagnall, G & Longhurst, B 2005, Globalization and belonging, SAGE, London. Multiple authors – More than three authors For in-text citations, list the name of the first author followed by et al. (meaning ‘and others’). Do not use et al. in the reference list. List all the authors. Direct quote Kring et al. (2010, p. 72) outline the theory as “…” or “The theory…” (Kring et al. 2010, p. 72) Paraphrasing Abnormal is not always…(Kring et al. 2010, pp. 47-48) Kring, A, Davison, GC, Neale, JM & Johnson, S 2010, Abnormal psychology, 11th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ. Multiple works by same author Format In-Text Reference Reference List Same author different years Arrange the in-text citation in chronological order starting with the earliest date first. Use a semicolon to separate the page reference from the date following it. In the reference list begin with the earliest date first. The name of the author can be repeated but it is preferable to use the em dash — with no space before the date. Same author same year Distinguish between the titles in-text by adding a lower case letter of the alphabet starting with ‘a’. In the reference list place the lower case letter after the date with no space. Dyer (2009; 2013) reported that leadership and communication… or Leadership and communication are…. (Dyer 2009, p. 223; 2013, p. 149) “In the last 10 years Australia has experienced…” (Manne 2005a, p. 1) Manne (2005b, p. 14) argued that the corporate media power… Dyer, J 2009, The business communication handbook, 8th edn, Pearson, Frenchs Forest, NSW. —2013, Communication for business and the professions: strategies and skills, 5th edn, Pearson, Frenchs Forest, NSW. Manne, R (ed.) 2005a, Do not disturb: is the media failing Australia?, Black Inc., Melbourne. — 2005b, Left right left: political essays 1977-2005, Black Inc., Melbourne. No author or editor List the item alphabetically in the reference list by the title then date. Do not use Anon or Anonymous. Italicise the title in the In-text citation as well as in the Reference List Cite the work by its title and date. Direct quote “Ant behaviour patterns …” (The life of insects 1979, p. 23) Paraphrasing The life of insects 1979, Silver Burdett Co., Morristown, NJ. Format In-Text Reference Reference List In The life of insects (1979, p. 23) it is claimed that… Format In-Text Reference Reference List No date of publication If there is no date use n.d. If there is an approximate date use c. (this means ‘circa’ – Latin for ‘around/about’). This is emphasised by Seah (n.d.) when… This is emphasised by Seah (c. 2005) when… Seah, R n.d., Micro-computer applications, Microsoft Press, Redmond, Washington. Seah, R c.2005, Micro-computer applications, Microsoft Press, Redmond, Washington. Second or later edition Any edition other than the first edition must be included in the reference list citation. The edition statement is added after the title, followed by a comma. A reprint is not a new edition. It does not need a specific mention. Use the abbreviation edn (no full stop) for edition. Direct quote “Student centred learning…” (Killen 2009, p. 10) Paraphrasing Effective teaching is based on several… (Killen 2009, p. 10) Killen, R 2009, Effective teaching strategies: lessons from research and practice, 5th edn, Cengage Learning, South Melbourne. Secondary sources This is where the work of one author is cited in another author’s work For the in-text citation you might write: As the cultural critic Norman Klein stated in 1997, “the Romantics gloried in the ruins of memory” (cited in Cameron 2008, p. 5) In the Reference List you only need to record the book that you actually sourced: Cameron, A 2008, Modular Narratives in Contemporary Cinema, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, New York. Format In-Text Reference Reference List Single author – Paraphrasing Metcalf (2005, p. 184) propounded the idea that… Metcalf, P 2005, Anthropology: the basics, Routledge, Abingdon. Single author – when fewer than 30 words are quoted Include the quote within the paragraph and include specific page number/s. Use quotation marks to show the exact words. Metcalf (2005, p. 184) argues that “the Nuer of southern Sudan lacked any institutions of governance; no chiefs or councils of elders, no armies or law enforcement” Metcalf, P 2005, Anthropology: the basics, Routledge, Abingdon. Format In-Text Reference Reference List Single author – when 30 or more words are quoted Begin quoting the material on a new line. Indent it 5 spaces (use the Indent tool to keep all lines of the quote evenly indented). Include specific page number/s. Also, always include the page number(s) when drawing primarily on a particular page or section rather than referring to the source as a whole. In-text use p. for a single page (Metcalf 2005, p. 45) and pp. for a page range e.g. (Metcalf 2005, pp. 34-36). Omit quotation marks. Use double spacing for your text and single spacing for the intended quote. Make sure the quote is exactly as it was published. Much has been written about acute care. Finkelman (2006, p. 184), for example, points out that: There are many changes in acute care services occurring almost daily, and due to the increasing use of outpatient surgery, surgical services have experienced major changes. Hospitals are increasing the size of their outpatient or ambulatory surgery departments and adjusting to the need of moving patients into and out of the surgical service in 1 day or even a few hours. Recently, this trend has been seen in some Australian hospitals and research here… Finkelman, AW 2006, Leadership and management in nursing, Pearson Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. Translated work Format In-Text Reference Reference List When the role of a translator, compiler, or reviser, is acknowledged, the initials precede the surname. This format also applies to compilers, editors and revisers. Use the abbreviations rev., trans., ed./eds or comp./comps appropriate. Direct quote Cite the author, not the translator of the book in the in-text citation “Morality…” (Nietzsche 1956, p. 27) Paraphrasing Nietzsche (1956, p. 27) argues that… Give acknowledgement to the translator after the title: Nietzsche, FW 1956, The birth of tragedy: and, The genealogy of morals, trans. F Golffing, Doubleday, Garden City, New York. Format In-Text Reference Reference List JOURNAL, NEWSPAPER & NEWSLETTER ARTICLES Journal articles Capitalise all main words in the Journal Title (not ‘and’ ‘of’ ‘in’ etc.). The title of the article is in quotes. The title of the journal is in italics. Author, initial(s) Year of publication, ‘Article title’, Journal Title, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number if any), p./pp. (page number/range). Journal article with one author Direct quote Lee (2007, p. 157) draws on data collected from “…” Paraphrasing The ongoing need for remittances…(Lee 2007, p. 160) Lee, H 2007, ‘Transforming transnationalism: second generation Tongans overseas’, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 157-178. Journal article with two or three authors Format In-Text Reference Reference List Cite the names of the authors in the order they appear on the title page of the article. When the authors names are incorporated into your text, use ‘and’ instead of ‘&’. If the names of the authors are in brackets use ‘&’ before the last author. Direct quote Carlin and Ford (2006, p. 79) claim that, “paying executives in the form of options…”. or “A further noteworthy influence…” (Carlin & Ford 2006, p. 79). Paraphrasing The group of 100 joined the ASX and other associations… (Carlin & Ford 2006, p. 79). Carlin, TY & Ford, G 2006, ‘A governance perspective on executive options plans – some Australian empirical evidence’, Australian Accounting Review, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 75-84. Journal article with more than three authors In-Text List the name of the first author followed by et al. (meaning ‘and others’) Reference list List all authors. Do not use ‘et al.’ Enter the authors in the order they appear on the title page of the article. Direct quote Wattal et al. conclude that, “[p]olitics in the United States has come a long way…” (2010, p. 670). or “We believe information systems can provide insight into…” (Wattal et al. 2010, p. 670). Paraphrasing The candidates site “stickiness” is not determined by popularity (Wattal et al. 2010, p. 670). Wattal, S, Schuff, D, Mandviwalla, M & Williams, CB 2010, ‘Web 2.0 and politics: the 2008 U.S. presidential election and an epolitics research agenda’, MIS Quarterly, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 669- 688. Journal article with no volume or issue number Format In-Text Reference Reference List An interesting approach to scam (Wychick & Thompson 2005) suggests that… Wychick, J & Thompson, L 2005, ‘Fallen for a scam lately?’ Australia Today, 24 November, pp54-60. Journal article with no author Use the ‘title of the article’ in place of the author in-text Put the ‘title of the article’ in single quotes List the article alphabetically by its title in the reference list. Direct quote “During his campaign Obama…”(‘Restructuring USAID: time to match rhetoric with deeds’ 2010, p. 45) Paraphrasing In the article ‘Restructuring USAID: time to match rhetoric with deeds’ (2010, p. 45) the author laments… ‘Restructuring USAID: time to match rhetoric with deeds’ 2010, The Lancet, vol. 376, Iss. 9747, p. 1118. Journal article retrieved from the Internet Follow this example if the journal article is only available via the internet. Enclose the URL in the ‘greater than’ ‘less than’ symbols < >. Put what journal details are available after the title. Volume and issue nos. may not always available. If there is no author use the ‘title of the article’ in place of the author in-text. Direct quote Findings suggest that “[i]ntercultural communication skills… in ELT” (Xiao & Petraki 2007) Paraphrasing Xiao and Petraki (2007) establish in their study that… Xiao, H & Petraki E 2007, ‘An Investigation of Chinese students’ difficulties in intercultural communication and its role in ELT’, Journal of Intercultural Communication, no. 13, viewed 27 November 2010, Secondary sources Format In-Text Reference Reference List Where the work of one author is cited in another author’s work For in-text citations: Fong’s 1987 study (cited in Betram 1996, p. 9) found that memory … In the Reference List record only the journal you actually sourced i.e. Bertram reference. Journal articles retrieved from a database If an article is accessed using a library database e.g. Proquest or Expanded Academic, cite it the same as the print article. Do not include the date viewed, database name or URL. Direct quote Carlin and Ford (2006, p. 79) observe that, “paying executives in the form of options…”. Or “A further noteworthy influence…” (Carlin & Ford, 2006, p. 79). Paraphrasing The group of 100 joined the ASX and other associations… (Carlin & Ford, 2006, p. 79). Carlin, TY & Ford, G 2006, ‘A governance perspective on executive options plans – some Australian empirical evidence’, Australian Accounting Review, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 75-84. Journal articles retrieved from a database (no author) See entry for Journal article with no author In-text Referencing Newspaper articles Format In-Text Reference Reference List Newspaper title is in italics. Leave out ‘The’ in the title. Use Australian or Sydney Morning Herald. Newspaper article – with author/s Newspaper headline is the article title in single quotes. Include the date of issue (day month) of the newspaper after the title. Include the page number of the article in the Reference list. Do not include page numbers in the in-text reference. Direct quote “In a break with tradition, the Prime Minister’s office supplied video footage of the visit taken…” (Crowe 2015). Paraphrasing Crowe (2015) compares inclusion of media teams to Tony Abbott’s visit to Baghdad with previous prime ministerial visits to Iraq and Afghanistan. Crowe, D 2015, ‘ Anger as media left grounded’, Australian, 06 January, p. 4. Newspaper article – with no author If the author is not evident provide all the details in the in-text citation including the page nos. Direct quote “A British Ministry of Defence spokesman confirmed…” (Australian 12 November 2010, p. 14). Paraphrasing The report in the Australian (12 November 2010, p. 14) remarked that Breaker Morant… Not required as all details are provided in-text Format In-Text Reference Reference List Newspaper article retrieved from a database Reference a newspaper article from a database e.g. Factiva or ProQuest in exactly the same way as you would a newspaper article in print. There is no need to acknowledge which database the article came from. See either the examples for Newspaper article with author or without author. Online newspaper or newsletter article Add the URL and date viewed for articles found on a Newspaper webpage. Direct quote “China, for instance, is targeting…over 15 years” (Gittens 2010). Paraphrasing Gittens (2010) accuses Australia of being behind other countries efforts to reduce carbon. Gittins, R 2010, ‘Suits us to be deluded on climate,’ The Age, 17 November, viewed 6 December, . Format In-Text Reference Reference List GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS ABS Statistics Abbreviate publisher to ABS. Author will always be Australian Bureau of Statistics. Place of publication for printed statistics is always Canberra. Year of publication is the year it is released not the date in the title. Include the Catalogue number preceded by cat. no. (the number is part of the title on ABS publications). Direct quote “The number of divorces has been decreasing each year after reaching a peak in 2001” (ABS 2008). Paraphrasing According the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2008) the median length of a marriage to separation is approximately 9 years. Print Australian Bureau of Statistics 2008, Divorces Australia 2007, cat. no. 3307.0.55.001, ABS, Canberra. Online Australian Bureau of Statistics 2008, Divorces Australia 2007, cat. no. 3307.0.55.001, viewed 17 January 2011, . Government Department as Author/s Format In-Text Reference Reference List It is common when referencing government publications to have the same group author and publisher. In the reference list put in entries for both the full group author name and the abbreviated name. If a committee has prepared the report for a government department or agency use the committee name as the author, and the government department as the publisher. “According to the International Atomic Energy Agency… unauthorised movements of nuclear material” (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2005, p. 12). Long group author names If the group author name is long and cited frequently abbreviate the name in the in-text citation e.g. “International community has had success….renounce nuclear weapons” (DFAT 2010, p. 14). Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2005, Weapons of mass destruction Australia’s role in fighting proliferation : practical responses to new challenges, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Canberra. DFAT – see Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Government Report (print or online) Often the author and the publisher are the same in Government publications. Abbreviate long group names if being referred to often. Put both the abbreviated and full form of the group author in the reference list. PDF documents look like the printed document and should contain all the publication details. Often online reports are the same as print, just add the date accessed and the URL after the publication details. Direct quote “Between 1887 and 1954 private welfare agencies and individuals were authorised to apprehend children” (Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission 1997, p. 55). “Eight events remain significantly associated with an increased likelihood of a mother experiencing high distress they are…” (Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs 2009, p. 36). Paraphrasing In the Bringing them home report it highlights the strategy of permanently retaining children who were placed temporarily in respite accommodation (Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, 1997, p. 55). Print Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission 1997, Bringing them home: report of the national inquiry into the separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their families, Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, Sydney. Online Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs 2009, Growing Up in Australia: the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children: 2008–09 Annual Report, FaHCSIA, Canberra, viewed 12 December 2010, . FaHCSIA see Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs. Format In-Text Reference Reference List Stress is a key factor contributing to poorer outcomes for mother and infant (FaHCSIA 2009, p. 36) Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) print or online Parliamentary debates are referenced using the Jurisdiction (eg. Australia or New South Wales) followed by the Chamber (eg. House of Representatives or Senate for Commonwealth, and Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council for NSW) The title Debates is always in italics. The volume number may not be available in the online versions. Direct quote The then Minister for Health, John Thwaites (Victoria, Legislative Assembly 2000, p. 2145) reveals that “The National and Victorian Drug Household Survey indicate…” The Prime Minister, Mr Howard predicted that “in the foreseeable future nuclear power…fossil fuel” (Australia, House of Representatives 2006, p. 41). Paraphrasing Thwaites outlined the Government’s plan for safe injecting facilities in the Second Reading Speech… (Victoria, Legislative Assembly 2000 pp. 2144-2149). The Prime Minister Mr Howard (Australia, House of Representatives 2006, p.40) outlined his defence for the government’s failure to sign… Print Victoria, Legislative Assembly 2000, Debates, vol. 447, pp. 2144- 2149. Online Australia, House of Representatives 2006, Debates, viewed 12 December 2010, . Parliamentary Paper A reference to a Commonwealth Parliamentary paper would begin Australia, Parliament… If a Commissioner or Chairperson is mentioned their name goes after the title Direct quote In the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission it was acknowledged that “underground cable essentially eliminates bushfire risk associated with the provision of electricity” (Victoria, Parliament 2010, p.154). Victoria, Parliament 2010, 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission, (B. Teague, Chairperson) Parl. Paper 332, vol. 2, The Commission, Melbourne. Format In -Text Reference Reference List in round brackets. Format In-Text Reference Reference List LEGAL PUBLICATIONS Legal Cases The following details are required for intext and reference citations: * the name of the case * the year or volume number, or both * the page on which the report of the case begins The name of the case is italicised. The year is enclosed in parentheses. Square brackets are used when there is no volume number and the year is an integral part of the title, i.e. square brackets indicate that the year of publication is the volume number. If you are referring to a particular page of the judgment, include a ‘pinpoint reference’ to the actual page in the in-text citation. Use the word ‘at’ instead of p. Do not include URLs for cases found online. Direct quote The judge in R v Ramage (2004) VSC 508 stated the “The Court cannot allow…” Paraphrasing In the case of Mabo v. Queensland (no. 2) (1992) 175 CLR1, it was… The case, Jones v. Sherlock (2009) NSWSC 246 showed that… In Northern Sandblasting Pty Ltd v. Harris (1997) 188 CLR 313 at 334 the High Court held that the landlord was in breach of a contractual duty of care owed to the tenants and to their family. R v. Ramage (2004) VSC 508 Chappel v Hart [1998] HCA 55 Mabo v. Queensland (no. 2) (1992) 175 CLR1. Jones v. Sherlock (2009) NSWSC 246. Northern Sandblasting Pty Ltd v. Harris (1997) 188 CLR 313. Legislation Format In-Text Reference Reference List Legislation should be referenced as if in print even if viewed electronically Acts Most legislation has a short formal title that can be used for citation purposes. The first in-text reference to an Act or Ordinance should cite the short formal title, in italics, exactly and in full. In subsequent references the title can be shown in roman type without the date. Do not place a comma between the title and the year. If the name of the legislation begins with an article (eg. a, an, the) do not omit the article in the citation. Bills Bills before parliament are ‘unpublished’ and should be cited in roman type not italics. First in-text reference: In relation to action regarding unsuitable goods, s. 74B of the Trade Practices Act 1974 states… Subsequent in-text reference/s: According to the Trade Practices Act… Example of an act beginning with an article: The Commonwealth’s A New Tax System (Wine Equalisation Tax) Act 1999 makes provision for… In the Companion Animals Amendment Bill 2006 (NSW) there is provision for…. Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cwlth). Companion Animals Amendment Bill 2006 (NSW). Patents & Standards Format In-Text Reference Reference List Patents For patents the title may be more of a descriptive title rather than a formal title Identifying elements such as patent numbers should be included If no individual author is available, a corporate author can be used in the in-text reference. Standards For standards not retrieved from an electronic database, replace online database information with publisher information. Paraphrase The particle trap design is… (Cookson 1985) Direct quote The rule from Standards Australia (2009, p. 23) is: “[a]n adhesive label…” Paraphrase …stated that glass in buildings must be… (Standards Australia Online 2006) Cookson, AH 1985, Particle trap for compressed gas insulated transmission systems, US Patent 4554399. Mccallum, JM 2008, Method for and composition of excipient suitable for use in herbal formulations and formulations derived therefrom, Australian Patent AU 2008100919, viewed 8 December 2008, SciFinder Scholar. Standards Australia 2009, LP Gas fuel vessels for automotive use, AS/NZS 3509:2009, Standards Australia, Sydney. Standards Australia Online 2006, Glass in buildings: selection and installations, AS 1288-2006, amended 31 January 2008, viewed 19 May 2009, SAI Global Database Format In-Text Reference Reference List WEB RESOURCES Blogs If no proper name is given, the author’s username may be used instead. If the author puts multiple posts up on the same day, include the time the entry was posted.- e.g. 12 November 13:53. If you are referencing a comment from a weblog, use the name of the commenter instead of the author of the weblog post and use ‘weblog comment’ instead of ‘web log post’ for format. Include the exact title (Including ‘Re:’ if used). If you are using the whole blog and not an individual post, do not include the Blog Post Title and change the format to weblog. Direct quote “The whole idea of a conspiracy is that it takes two or more people conspiring” (Henderson 2010). …as Henderson questions, “[t]he whole idea of a conspiracy…” (2010). Paraphrasing Henderson’s weblog post (2010) covers how the meaning of the word conspiracy has changed to mean self-dealing. Henderson, D 2010, Has the word ‘conspiracy’ lost its meaning?, Library of Economics and Liberty, weblog post, 13 December, viewed 21 December 2010, Document from a Website If there is no author begin the reference with the title of the document. Include page numbers in-text if it is a long document. Use n.d. if there is no date. Direct quote “Following the intensification of the GFC…weaken markedly” (Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry 2010, p. 5). Paraphrasing Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry 2010, Issues Paper Youth Employment, Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, viewed 15 December 2010, . Format In-Text Reference Reference List The Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (2010) found that more Australian youth are unable to find work in 2010 than in 2008. Podcast / Vodcast If the podcast has no recognisable author, start with the title and put the year after the title. Use the title in the in-text referencing. Direct quote ….”while the octopus was carrying the coconut, it was actually of no benefit to it”, Julian Finn explains on the La Trobe University Podcast (2010). Paraphrasing This podcast show is about who owns the fish and the ocean (The War on Fish 2010). Finn, J & Norman, M 2010, Have coconut, will travel, vodcast, 23 April, La Trobe University, viewed 10 January 2011, . The war on fish 2010, podcast, 9 July, La Trobe University, viewed 10 January 2011, . Social Media (Twitter, Facebook etc.) Before using a reference from Twitter or Facebook make sure it is appropriate for academic work. If no proper name is given, use the username. As tweets and status updates do not have Direct quote The BP Parody account created on Twitter, notes “[c]atastrophe is a strong word, let’s all agree to call it a whoopsie daisy”. (BP Public Relations 2010). Paraphrasing BP Public Relations 2010, ‘Catastrophe is a strong…’, BPGlobalPR, Twitter, 24 May, viewed 10 January 2011, . Office of the Prime Minister 2011, ‘Prime Minister Gillard today announced…’, Julia Gillard, Facebook, 13 January, viewed 20 January 2011, . Format In-Text Reference Reference List titles, use the first few words of the message as a title. The Office of The Prime Minister (2010), updated their Julia Gillard Facebook page on 13 Jan, with… Webpage If there is no author or organisation name begin the reference with the title of the webpage. Direct quote “The risk threshold for entry to the Gateway Review Process is high risk” (Department of Finance and Deregulation 2010). Paraphrasing According to the Department of Finance and Deregulation, the Gateway process… (2010). The Gateway Review Process 2010, Department of Finance and Deregulation, viewed 10 December 2010, . Online video Direct quote “Googling is great and everybody does it but not for university assignments” (LTULibrary 2010). Paraphrasing This video shows why you shouldn’t just use Google when researching for university assignments (LTULibrary 2010). The CSIRO YouTube video (2009) reveals … LTULibrary 2010, Why can’t I just google?, online video, 9 February, La Trobe University, viewed 20 January 2011, . CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) 2009, Making a difference, online video, 25 May, CSIRO, Viewed December 9, 2010, . Format In-Text Reference Reference List Format In-Text Reference Reference List OTHER SOURCES Conference Papers Published If the conference paper is available online add the viewed date and URL after the place of publication. The title of the conference is put in italics. Unpublished If the paper is not published the title of the conference is not in Italics. Use the phrase paper presented at after the title of the paper and before the title of the conference. Put the dates of the conference (range of days and month) after the place. Direct quote ‘To engage productively with assessment tasks…’ (Kift & Moody 2009). Paraphrasing Kift and Moody (2009) observe that first year students require an induction to academic conventions to engage with assessment. Direct quote “Students are more likely to persist and graduate in settings that hold…” (Tinto 2009). Paraphrasing Tinto (2009) identifies his four main conditions for student retention as… Kift, S M, & Moody, KE 2009, ‘Harnessing assessment and feedback in the first year to support learning success, engagement and retention’, in ATN Assessment Conference 2009 Proceedings, RMIT University, Melbourne, 19 – 20 November, viewed 8 November 2010, . Tinto, V 2009, ‘Taking the student retention seriously: rethinking the first year at university’, paper presented at the FYE Curriculum Design Symposium, Queensland University of Technology, 5-6 February, viewed 12 December 2010, Course Material Format In-Text Reference Reference List State the type of course material after the title of the lecture. You can use the subject code or the subject name. Course material is unpublished so the title is enclosed in single quotes not italics. Direct quote “Socialisation into roles is a major impetus behind inequality” (Wallace 2010). Paraphrasing It was pointed out in the week 2 lecture that kinship… (Lee 2010) Wallace, P 2010, ‘Gender & sexuality’ PowerPoint slides, SOC1SAC, La Trobe University, viewed 19 January 2011. Lee, H 2010, ‘Charting Kinship’, lecture, ANT2KAM, La Trobe University, delivered 5 August. Figure / Graph / Table Any reproduced table, figure or graph must reference the original author and copyright holder. In the reference list, reference the source where the graph or table is located. The graph Divorces granted: Australia 1988 – 2007 (ABS 2008) illustrates… Australian Bureau of Statistics 2008, Divorces Australia 2007, cat. no. 3307.0.55.001, ABS, Canberra. Film, Video & Television Format In-Text Reference Reference List Film & Video The in-text references to films DVDs, videos, television, and radio programs should contain the title (in italics) and date of production. The key elements of a film or audiovisual reference are: * Title (in italics) * Year of publication or release * Format (use motion picture for films; use video recording, CD-ROM, DVD, audio cassette, slide, or microform etc. for other audiovisual material) * Distributor (for films) or publisher * Place of recording or publication (for audiovisual material) Although you are likely to view most feature films (i.e. movies) as DVDs, you should still reference feature films with the format ‘motion picture’ rather than ‘DVD’. Any special credits and other information that may be useful can be noted after the citation e.g. Revolutionary road 2009, DVD, Paramount Home Entertainment Australia, Abbotsford Vic., starring Leonardo Di Caprio and Kate Winslet. Television Place the Title in italics, and date of …….as portrayed in About Jenny Holzer (2011) The scene, towards the end of the film, depicts… (Alien Underworld 2002) Woody Allen in Annie Hall (1977) demonstrates the art of… A recent Four Corners episode highlighted the difficulties of About Jenny Holzer 2011, DVD, Microcinema International, San Francisco, California. Alien Underworld 2002, video recording, Tattooed Media and the Australian Film Finance Corporation, Australia, written & directed by Sonya Pemberton. Annie Hall 1977, motion picture, MGM Home Entertainment, Santa Monica CA, directed by Woody Allen. Breaking Point, Four Corners 2010, television program, Australian Format In-Text Reference Reference List recording in the in-text citation. If the program is part of a series put the episode title first followed by the series title both in italics. Add the broadcast date after the publication details. caring for disabled family members (Breaking Point 2010). When interviewed on 7.30 Report (2015) the Treasurer said … It could be argued that the financial situation at the time necessitated…. (What are we going to do with the money? 1997) Broadcasting Corporation, Australia, February 15. 7.30 Report 2015, television program, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Australia, 18 November. What are we going to do with the money? 1997, television program, Special Broadcasting Service, Australia, 8 August Images & Artwork Online When reproducing/including an image in your work, place the in-text reference immediately under the image. For the format description: use ‘Image’ for photographs or graphics. Where the image is a photograph of an artwork, and the photographer has been specifically credited, note this after the title In the image above (Jorgensen 2010) you can see… Kamuro (2008) illustrates … (Sculpture by the sea – Elephant 2009) (Van Gogh 1890) Jorgensen, L 2010, Lighthouse Freezes, image, ABC News, viewed 17 December 2010, . Kamuro (2008) Calmness, image, Flickr viewed 30 June 2010, . Sculpture by the sea – Elephant 2009, image, photographed by A. Wain, Flickr, viewed 4 February 2014, . Format In-Text Reference Reference List Where the photographer or artist is not known, start your reference with the Title of Image. Where none of the usual details are known, i.e. artist/photographer, date, title of image, start with [Subject of the image]. In-Print If you are citing an image from a printed source, reference the printed source as normal and use a page number in your intext citation to indicate which page the image comes from. (Gaunt 1970, p. 17) Van Gogh, V. 1890, Undergrowth with two figures, Google Cultural Institute, viewed 4 March 2014, . Gaunt, W. 1970, The impressionists, Thames & Hudson, London. Leaflet / Pamphlet Use the authorising body/publisher as the author OR use the title of the pamphlet/leaflet if there is no author. Use the title of the pamphlet in-text if there is no author. Use n.d. for no date. Use c. if you can approximately date the document e.g. c. 1985. Use the word “pamphlet” after the title. Direct quote “…” (New State for North Queensland Movement n.d.) Paraphrasing In the leaflet distributed by the New State for North Queensland Movement (n.d.) it is evident that… New State for North Queensland Movement n.d., A New state for North Queensland : why ? how ? when?, pamphlet, New State for North Queensland Movement, Townsville. Format In-Text Reference Reference List Maps Online In-Print Atlas (with editor) Atlas (without editor) Printed map (Google Earth, 2008) …..the position of the new city is to be north of Melbourne (ed. Eales 2003, Map 36). …the position of the new city is to be north of Melbourne (The Jacaranda Atlas 2003, Map 36). Motorways are indicated (Ordnance Survey, 2006)… Google Earth 6.0 2008, Hylands House and estates 51°42’39.17″N, 0°26’11.30″W, elevation 60M, 3D Buildings data layer, viewed 31 August 2011 Eales, S (ed.) 2003, The Jacaranda atlas, 3rd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Brisbane. The Jacaranda atlas 2003, 3rd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Brisbane. Ordnance Survey 2006, Chester and North Wales, Landranger series, Sheet 106, 1:50000, Ordnance Survey, Southampton. Media Release The description, ‘media release’, is inserted after the title of the media release. Direct quote In a statement released to the media, “Labor’s laws were driving small businesses to the wall,” Mr Baillieu said (2010). Paraphrasing Clearway changes were outlined in a release to the media (Baillieu, 2010). To reference an Online media release: Bailieu, T (Premier, Minister for the Arts) 2010, Coalition delivers for small business with clearways changes, media release, 9 December, Premier of Victoria, viewed 15 December 2010, . To reference a Paper media release: Watersmith, C. 2000, BHP enters new era, media release, 1 March, BHP limited, Melbourne. Format In-Text Reference Reference List Personal communication Personal communications includes letters, emails, interviews etc. Email addresses should never be cited without the permission of the owner of the address. Put all the details of the email letter etc. intext. This was confirmed by email (Brown 2012, pers. comm., 3 July). or Shickle S (2008 pers. comm., 8 July) verified that… Note: Personal communications can take a number of forms and are not normally available for consultation except under special circumstances. For this reason they are not usually included in the reference list. If a full citation is required, reference in the following way: Brown, A 2012, email, 3 July. Shickle, S 2008, email, 24 November. Plays and Poetry References to plays and poetry are often more precise if given in terms of acts, scenes, lines, verses, and so on. The following forms are recommended: William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, act 3, scene 2, line 74. or Judith Wright, Woman to child, verse 1, lines 3-5. Details of sources of this kind are not usually included in a reference list or bibliography. Statistics If using statistics from a database, the title of the database is in italics. (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009) For subsequent use, you can abbreviate (ABS 2009) Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009, Education and work, Australia, May 2009, cat. no. 6227.0, ABS, Canberra, viewed 24 November 2009, Format In-Text Reference Reference List Net sales in Australia for the year ending 2009 were $4,404,000.00 (Coca-Cola Amatil Ltd: Company Factfile 2010) . Coca-Cola Amatil Ltd: Company Factfile 2010, Euromonitor Global Market Information Database, viewed 20 March 2010, . Thesis Technically a thesis is not a published work, so the title is not placed in italics Under Award you might also put Masters thesis or Honours thesis Only put the location if it is not obvious from the name of the institution eg La Trobe University, Bundoora. University of Wollongong would be enough on its own Direct quote A model predictive control strategy was developed to optimise the selection of the optimal sequence of operating modes (Fiorentini 2016, p. 218) Paraphrasing Fiorentini (2016, p. 218) developed a model predictive control strategy… Fiorentini, M 2016, ‘Hybrid model predictive control of residential heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems with on-site energy generation and storage ‘, PhD thesis, University of Wollongong.

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