American civil war bibliography assignment.

merican civil war bibliography assignment.
Bibliography: In two subsections, list your Primary Sources and Secondary Works. This must include a minimum of 12 entries, including a minimum of 5 Primary Sources and 5 Secondary Works. Give full bibliographic citations following the Turabian/Chicago guidelines. Secondary Works should be no more than 25 years old. Secondary Works should be scholarly works and should not include reference works (encyclopedias, almanacs, textbooks), book reviews, or commercial web sites (.com). It is perfectly appropriate to use electronic material in your Secondary Works, especially e-books of scholarly books or databases of academic journals, but it must be scholarly and appropriately cited. Websites, web encyclopedias, blogs, wikis, etc., are unacceptable sources.
Links on how to write them:This link demonstrates how to do notes and bibliographic entries. Look especially at the first examples at the top of the page under the red font Book section. If you see the third blue font Bibliographic entries section you will see two perfect examples of how to write an entry; one has a single author and the other has two authors.
http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide/citation-guide-1.htmlLinks to an external site.
If you look at pg 471 of our 1301 course book, Classic American Autobiographies, you will see a standard bibliography. Each entry is simply alphabetized by author.
Also, here is an example from Purdue’s Writing center. The last two pages (22 and 23) are an example of a Chicago Style bibliography. Note that the blue comment boxes are tips/advice, not actually something that would appear on your bib.
https://owl.english.purdue.edu/media/pdf/1300991022_717.pdf (Links to an external site.)

ICT301 Advanced Network Topics, Management & Security

ICT301
Advanced Network Topics, Management & Security
ATMC
Task 2
Semester 2, 2017
Assessment and Submission Details
Marks: 35% of the Total Assessment for the Course
Due Date: 9:00am Friday, Week 12
This assignment should be submitted using Blackboard. The submission link will be open a week before the due date. Please follow the submission instructions in Blackboard.
The assignment will be marked out of a total of 100 marks and forms 35% of the total assessment for the course. Once marked, ALL assignments will be checked for plagiarism and/or collusion between individuals.
Refer to your Course Outline or the Course Web Site for a copy of the “Student Misconduct, Plagiarism and Collusion” guidelines.
Note: Each student MUST retain a copy of the assignment and this copy MUST be produced within 24 hours of it being requested by the Course Co-ordinator. Failure to produce the second copy of the assignment when requested may result in loss of marks or a fail grade for the assignment.
Requests for an extension to an assignment MUST be made to the course coordinator prior to the date of submission and requests made on the day of submission or after the submission date will only be considered in exceptional circumstances.
Background
STP limited have traditionally been cabinet makers in Wollongong from a factory that they own and Wollongong remains the head office. Sales have been going well and STP have recently bought competitors operations and premises in Bathurst and Lithgow. They have also opened a store in Sydney and in future they plan to open more. In Sydney, they have built a state of the art computerised manufacturing facility to produce cupboard and drawer fronts. The cupboard and drawer fronts are produced in three styles and come in an enormous range of colours which are produced to order. The new equipment means that they can produce the new fronts in less than a week and appreciable cheaper than other products on the market (around $1000 for a standard kitchen). STP has begun to sell a lot of cupboard and drawer fronts to people who want to update their kitchen without spending a lot of money. The cupboard and drawer fronts come complete with fixings and handles so that a home handyman could install them. However, not everyone can install the fronts themselves and STP is currently considering having vans carrying samples of their product and staffed by people who can install the products. These vans could act as salespoints as well as installers for the product. STP is not sure if they will run these vans themselves or offer than as a franchise opportunity for someone or a mix of these business models. The cost advantage as well as a high interest in home renovation has driven a lot of sales with a lot of enquiry from areas outside of the current STP locations. The owner Joe Smith, wants to take advantage of the capacity of the new machinery and pay for the machinery as quickly as possible.
As STP Limited have bought two existing stores and opened a new branch, there is a feeling that they have outgrown their current office arrangements. Currently, they do not run a lot of customer accounts rather the people ordering the cupboard and drawer fronts pay cash on ordering. However, as they are currently receiving a lot of enquiry from builders and developers they have had to implement customer accounts. STP Limited have also started a web site to showcase their products and publicise their range of products. Traditionally they have had a very rudimentary stock control system only carrying a small range of wood material, hinges and handles, however with the increase in sales they are now buying cupboard/ drawer material, hinges and handles in bulk and the stock system is not working particularly between branches. They are currently using on standard office software on standalone machines in each location.
The staff in the Bathurst and Lithgow offices have transferred from working with the previous owners and are used to working in small standalone locations with a limited range of products. They are therefore used to working with simple casual processes where they would mostly deal with builders and they would personally know a substantial proportion of customers. There are therefore no formal processes in place at these locations and limited processes in place in Wollongong and Sydney. Now they have retail people coming into the store wanting to talk about colours and styles of the cupboard and drawer fronts.
STP Limited had been running into problems where customers are ringing to check on the delivery of their order, which maybe as small as a replacement handle and the staff have to ring around all locations to see if one of the other locations have the parts in stock. There was also a problem where the system they have is showing the parts in stock and this is communicated to the customer but when the customer arrives at the store to pick up the items they find they are actually not in stock because they have been transferred to another location. There was also no means for the management to receive a report showing expenditure per location. In fact, there was limited ability to produce any reports.
They have upgraded their information systems, with a new stock control system, website and customer management system and accounting system. They have distributed databases in each location.
Stock control system – Currently trialling TradeGecko
Customer management system – SalesForce
Accounting system – MYOB (web-based)
Microsoft Office
They are also considering hiring salespeople at all the offices. Although Wollongong, has traditionally been the head office, Sydney sales are more than the other stores combined and continue to increase.
Each location has
• 2 to 4 counter staff handling sales and stock.
• A store manager.
• 2 to 4 desktop systems to handle point of sale transactions and an office machine.
Sydney office also contains:
• The owner (who travels regularly to the other stores)
• Accounts clerk
• Part time IT technician, who also has responsibility for the website.
• Part time accountant who works on special projects for the owner
• These people also have a machine, the owner, technician and accountant laptops, the accounts clerk a desktop.
Office Machine Age
Wollongong 2 warehouse machines 1 year old
2 warehouse machines 2 years old
2 laptops 3 years old
Accounts machine 1 years old
Sydney 4 warehouse and 1 management desktop
The new machinery for manufacturing comes with its own system and is all new. 6 months old
new
Bathurst 2 warehouse machines
(Desktops with POS software installed) 3 years old
1 office machine 6 months old
Lithgow 2 counter machines
(Desktops with POS software installed) 5 years old
1 office machine 6 months old
All networking equipment is newly purchased.
STP is not sure what equipment the van drivers will need.
The Internet connection is via ADSL and each office has a modem and switch. Wireless is also made available at each office and the staff are free to BYOD and connect to the network.
You are a new information systems manager hired by STP to help them achieve their strategic goals, their first project is that they are concerned about the business continuity of their network and their ability to keep client and organisational information secure. Most people in the organisation have very limited technical skills, however supporting the growth of their business and empowering their employees to exceed sales goals is a strategic goal of STP. It is important to the owner of STP that their information systems become more integrated to facilitate real time reporting. The owner of STP feels he has invested a great deal of money in the new equipment and systems and is anxious to protect his investment.
You have been requested to prepare a report by the owner, although he has limited technical knowledge he is extremely anxious to understand how his new systems will work together and that the system will comply with regulations, including privacy.
It is important to achieve well in this assignment that you discuss this networking project in particular and not network management and security in general.
This report should address the following issues and include the following sections in the main body of the report. Please note standard report structure must be adhered to.
1. Project Background which includes the following sub-sections
• Project Background
i. How is this project going to support the future growth of STP.
• Project scope
HOW BIG IS THE PROJECT
• Project goal
• Strategic alignment of project.
2. Network Security
• Securing data
• Mobile device security
3. Plan for hardware purchases.
4. Business continuity
5. Risk management
6. Conclusions
7. Recommendations

Assignment Requirements and Deliverables
The body of the report should be no less than two thousand (2000) words and it would be best to be no longer than four thousand (3000) words long.
• Appropriate referencing is required (both in-text and a bibliography). The textbook,
• Ciampa, M (2012), Security + Guide to Network Security Fundamentals , 5th edn, Cengage, Boston is a valid resource, however at least five (5) other good quality resources must also be used.
The report is to be prepared as a single Microsoft Word document adhering to all conventions detailed in Chapter 3 of:
Summers, J. and Smith, B., 2014, Communication Skills Handbook: How to succeed in written and oral communication, 4th, Wiley, Singapore
Submission
The completed assignment is to be submitted by the due date and is to include the following:
• One word document with electronic submission through safeassign.
The assignment will be assessed according to the marking sheet. Late submission of the assignment will result in a deduction of 10% of the available marks for each day that the assignment is late. Please note Saturday and Sunday are included in the count of days late.
Assignment Return and Release of Grades
Assignment grades will be available on the Blackboard web site with an electronic assignment marking sheet.
Where an assignment is undergoing investigation for alleged plagiarism or collusion the grade for the assignment and the assignment will be withheld until the investigation has concluded.
Appendix A
Marking Sheet for ICT301 S2.2017 Assignment 2
Student name:
Marking Criteria Maximum Marks Marks Obtained
ANSWERS Presentation of report
5
Professional communication (correct spelling, grammar, formal business language used)
5
1. Project background
20
2. Network security
20
3. Plan for hardware purchases
20
4. Business continuity
10
5. Risk management
10
Recommendations 5
Referencing 5
Total (I) = 100 0.0
0.0
/35%

research proposal.

ask description
This assignment will consist of a research proposal.
Taking the topic you have chosen, and using our feedback, revise what you have written for the Assessment 1 & 2 using the following structure:
1. An introduction consisting of a description of your research topic and research statement (in total no more than 3-4 sentences)
2. A set of research aims (1) objectives (2-5 in bullet points ) (should be no more than half a page
3. A description of the literature (rewritten from your literature review, if necessary, and précised into half a page)
4. A methodology section (about 5 pages, including):
a. Method chosen and why
b. Participants (who, where)
c. Sample size and sampling frame (how many, justification)
d. The type of data analysis needed
5. Discussion of the ethical issues involved and how you will deal with them
6. Timeline for the research (1/2 page)
7. What kind of stakeholder, community participation you will undertake (1/2 page)
8. Dissemination strategy (1/2 page)
9. Importance of the research (1 page).
The research proposal should be NO MORE THAN 8 PAGES LONG. It should be followed with a reference list (it may now include more than the 10 you previously used).
Assessment criteria
• Relevance of your work
• Work responds directly to the assigned task (see 1-5 above)
• Evidence of critical reflection and growth in understanding
• Conclusions are supported by evidence and argument
• Intellectual coherence of your work
• Logical flow of ideas
• Presentation is clear and concise
• Referencing is accurate
• Free from plagiarism’
Things to remember with regard to content:
• Have you clearly revised your one page research statement?
• Is your methodology section comprehensive and complete?
• Does the method chosen fit the topic?
• Is your timeline realistic for what you are trying to achieve
• Is your community/stakeholder consultation adequate?
• Is your whole assignment well structured, succinct and lucidly written, with correct syntax and spelling?
• Have you properly assessed the importance of the research?
• Is your assignment correctly referenced? The five papers and any others that you mention must be cited in either APA or ICMJE (‘Vancouver’) style.

Task description Assignment release date The outbreak scenario will be available on Monday, 31 July 2017 (Sydney AEST). You will be provided with an outbreak scenario. Your response will be based this scenario

Task description
Assignment release date The outbreak scenario will be available on Monday, 31 July 2017 (Sydney AEST).
You will be provided with an outbreak scenario. Your response will be based this scenario, structured around 4 tasks. Each task is worth 15 marks.
It is important that you follow the instructions below in terms of the number of pages you include in your response. Marks will be deducted for excessively long responses and excessively short responses. One of the aims of this assignment is to practice expressing important, relevant and sufficient information concisely.
Task 1 You will analyse some artificial outbreak data that are provided and provide a one page (strictly one page) summary (like a conference abstract) that has an introduction, methods, results and conclusions of your analysis. The results will guide your response to the subsequent tasks.
Task 2 Prepare a one page (strictly one page) briefing note for the Chief Health Officer describing the outbreak, the results of your analysis, and your recommendations for controlling the outbreak.
Task 3 Prepare a one page (strictly one page) alert for clinicians in medical clinics serving the outbreak area. This should provide very brief and essential advice on the nature of the outbreak, and how clinicians providing primary care can support patient management and public health response.
Task 4 Prepare a one page (strictly one page) media release for the national health authorities to share with the media, that provides the general public with essential and appropriate information about the outbreak, how they can protect themselves and their loved ones, and how they can contribute to controlling the outbreak at the population level.
Consider the target audience relevant to each task. Consider the target audience’s knowledge of the topic when writing your response to each task.
In your response to each task, cite appropriate information or research. Your responses to each question must be referenced as per the referencing instructions in this Course Outline. Appropriate sources would include scientific literature, regional, national or international guidelines and reports, or textbooks. The documents you are being asked to prepare do not usually require citations. However, for this assignment, citations and referencing are required.
Your results must be presented in a single Microsoft Word or PDF document. You will upload your document to Turnitin – see Submit PHCM9731 (S2-17) A2. Turnitin will automatically check for possible plagiarism. Retain your digital receipt from Turnitin as proof of your submission. Include in your document a cover page. The cover page should include your student number and the name of your assignment. Important: do not include your name in the document you submit for marking.
Include references at the end of your document after the four pages of your response. If you are using numbered references, these don’t need to start at 1 in each task except the first one; you can continue the numbering sequentially across tasks.
Feedback
We will aim to provide your mark and feedback to you within 10 business days of the due date.
Learning outcomes addressed
The questions will touch on all of the course learning outcomes:
Explain the role of disease surveillance in outbreak detection and investigation.
Describe best practice principles of outbreak investigations in diverse global settings.
Determine prevention and control measures for an outbreak response.
Analyse outbreak data to inform decision making.
Develop outbreak communications materials for various stakeholder audiences including health professionals and the general public.
Assessment criteria
Written assessment tasks will be assessed on:
Relevance (ie. to answering the question)
Research (ie. synthesis of literature)
Description (of issue/problem)
Argument
Analysis
Expression (communication of ideas).

ACCOUNTING FOR MANAGERS

UNIT CODE: ACT507 UNIT NAME: ACCOUNTING FOR MANAGERS
Assignment Two Information
Semester 2 2017
Assessment 40%
School of Law and Business
Semester 2, 2011 Page 1 of
Faculty of Law Business and Art
SUBMISSION REQUIREMENTS.
Due Date
This assignment may be submitted at or before 12 midnight on Sunday of Study Week 13 (22 October 2017).
Lodgement
• The Assignment must include a coversheet that shows the student full name, student number, campus, and lecturer’s name. Do not use the standard CDU Assignment Cover Sheet templates.
• Assignment must be lodged online via the ACT507 Learnline Assignment Lodgement link.
• Ensure your file is named using a file naming convention that allows the lecturer to identify to whom it belongs. Failure to use an acceptable file naming convention may result in your assignment lodgement being rejected. The file name should start with the name of your campus followed by your student number (Examples: SYDN990040, MELB990040, WFD990040, EXT990040)
• DO NOT LODGE VIA EMAIL or FAX – assignments lodged by email or fax will not be accepted.
• KEEP A COPY – Ensure you have a copy of the assignment lodged. If you have submitted assessment work electronically please make sure you have a backup copy.
• It is the students’ responsibility to ensure that submission of the assignment is successful.
University Plagiarism policy
Plagiarism is the unacknowledged use of material written or produced by others or a rework of your own material. All sources of information and ideas used in assignments must be referenced. This applies whether the information is from a book, journal article, the internet, or a previous essay you wrote or the assignment of a friend. For more details please refer to ACT507 Learnline site.
Late Assignments and Extensions
LATE ASSIGNMENTS WILL GENERALLY NOT BE ACCEPTED.
Exceptions will only be made where assignments are late due to special circumstances that are supported by documentary evidence, and may be subject to a penalty of 5% of assignment marks per day. Partially completed assignments will be accepted with appropriate loss of marks for the incomplete portion.
Should students foresee potential difficulties with submission of assessment items, they should contact the lecturer immediately, to discuss suitable arrangements etc for the submission of those assessment times. An Application for Assignment Extension or Special Consideration should be completed and provided to the Head of School, School of Law and Business. This application form, explanation and instructions is available on the ACT507 CDU Learnline course site.
Summary of Assignment Related Documents
The following is a summary of documents associated with and/or provided for this Assignment.
• The Assignment Requirements Document (this document)
• Assignment Data in MS Excel format
School of Law and Business
Semester 2, 2011 Page 2 of
Faculty of Law Business and Art
REQUIREMENTS FOR ASSIGNMENT TWO:
There are four parts to this assignment.
Part A – Prepare a Master Budget (30% of the assignment assessment marks)
All that is required for this part is the Budget Schedules. They can be provided in MS Word, MS Excel or PDF format.(Word count for this part is not relevant)
Wittgenstein Pty Ltd produces propellers used in the production of wind-powered electricity generating equipment. The propellers are sold to various engineering companies that produce wind generators in Australia and Europe.
• Projected sales in units for the coming four months are provided in the assignment data sheet.
The following data pertain to production policies and manufacturing specifications followed by Wittgenstein Pty Ltd. The following details are provided in the assignment data sheet • Finished goods inventory on January 1.
• The full absorption cost of the opening finished goods inventory.
• The variable manufacturing cost of the opening finished goods inventory.
• The desired finished goods ending inventory for each month.
• The data on materials used.
• The amount of materials to be on hand at the beginning of the month
• This stipulated amount of materials to be on hand at the beginning of the month is exactly the amount of material on hand on January 1. (Assume that the material costs are the same as current quarter’s production.)
• The direct labour used per unit of output.
• The average direct labour cost per hour.
Details of the Overheads for each month are provided in the data list. The Overheads are estimated using a flexible budget formula. (Activity is measured in direct labour hours.) You will have to determine the Maintenance cost and relevant statistical data necessary for you to do so is provided in the data List
Monthly selling and administrative overhead expenses are also estimated using a flexible budgeting formula. (Activity is measured in units sold.) Finance charges and bad debts are included in the figures provided and do not need to be identified separately in the selling and administrative overhead expenses. Details are provided in the data list.
Other information provided the assignment data list are:
• The unit selling price of the propeller.
• The cost of land to be purchased in February. The company plans to purchase the land for future expansion.
• The value and timing of dividends paid to shareholders.
• Sales are on credit and the cash receipts pattern for each month is provided, as is the level of Accounts Receivable as at January 1.
• The payment for labour and purchases of materials and other costs are for cash and paid for in the month of acquisition. There is no Accounts Payable amount for this assignment.
• The cash balance on January 1.
If the firm develops a cash shortage by the end of the month, sufficient cash is borrowed to cover the shortage (including any interest payments due). Any cash borrowed is repaid one month later, as is the interest due. The annual interest rate is provided with the assignment data.
Required:
Prepare an operating budget for the first quarter (showing each month and totals for the quarter) with the following schedules: a. Sales budget
b. Production budget
c. Direct materials purchases budget
d. Direct labour budget
e. Manufacturing Overhead budget
f. Ending finished goods inventory budget
g. Cost of goods sold budget
h. Budgeted income statement (ignore income taxes and GST)
i. Cash budget
Note that whilst the Selling and Administration expenses must be included, there is no requirement to provide a Selling and Administration Expense budget schedule.
School of Law and Business
Semester 2, 2011 Page 3 of
Part B – Report on the impact of Cost Structures (20% of the assignment assessment marks)
You are required to provide a report of approx 500 words or less (excluding attachments and references), accompanied by relevant calculations, in MS Word, MS Excel and/or PDF format (or combination). Using a Report style is recommended but not compulsory.
Rita Arthurs, the sales manager is discussing the possible outcome of the forthcoming election with Paulo Farmer, the production manager. She noted that if one of the major political parties wins the election and forms government, there is a strong possibility that alternative energy sources such as wind-generated electricity may no longer be as actively supported by the new government as is the case under the current government. Rita’s primary concern is that the current market for alternative power generation equipment is already volatile and subject to significant uncertainty. Paulo is also concerned about his plans to build the new highly automated manufacturing facility on the land to be purchased in February. This new manufacturing facility will enable him to manufacture, in-house, the major two parts he is now purchasing for assembly and to significantly automate the assembly process that is currently somewhat labour intensive. His projections for the new facility indicate a reduction in direct material and direct labour costs of 25% but that his fixed manufacturing overheads are likely to increase by 50%due to the increased investment in production capacity.
Required:
Write a brief report addressing Rita’s concerns, using some of the concepts covered in chapters (15, 16, 17, 20, 22, 23) in this unit, AND the information provided from the completion of Part A of this assignment, and any additional calculations using the existing data that you feel are relevant. Your report should also include a discussion of the impact of Paulo’s intended investment in new manufacturing capacity. Support your report with relevant calculations.
Note that you should restrict your report to those concepts specifically covered in chapters 16, 17, 20 and more generally in chapters 22 and 23 , and not discuss the current political situation, environmental issues, or the marketing of alternate energy sources etc. or other interesting but otherwise irrelevant issues.
Part C – Report on the Budgeted versus Actual Outcomes (20% of the assignment assessment marks)
You are required to provide a report of approx 500 words or less (excluding attachments and references), accompanied by relevant calculations, in MS Word, MS Excel and/or PDF format (or combination). Using a Report style is recommended but not compulsory.
At the end of the budgeting period, Paulo Farmer, the production manager is reviewing the actual outcomes (in particular the direct materials and direct labour) and comparing these to the budget that was originally produced (in Part A).
The following data related to the actual results recorded after the end of the quarter by Wittgenstein Pty Ltd, and are provided in the assignment data sheet:
• Actual Sales Volume for the quarter.
• The actual volume of direct materials used during the quarter (for each part).
• The actual cost of the direct materials used during the quarter (for each part).
• The actual direct labour hours used during the quarter.
• The actual cost of direct labour used during the quarter.
Paulo is confused by the outcomes. He is aware that the budget that was created before the start of the quarter was a well-considered and constructed estimate, and he did not expect that the actual outcomes would be exactly as forecast. However he is finding it difficult to understand the reasons for the differences.
Required:
Prepare a brief report to assist Paulo determine what might have caused the differences between the original budget and the final actual outcomes. Speculations of the causes are sufficient, provided they are supported by relevant calculations taken from the data provided, and the budget produced in Part A,. These calculations should be included in, and referred to, in your report. Restrict your discussion to the changes related to direct materials and direct labour. As Paulo is aware that budget estimates may be inaccurate at the time of budget preparation, do not include this particular cause of difference in your report.
School of Law and Business
Semester 2, 2011 Page 4 of
Faculty of Law Business and Arts ACT507-assignment2-sem022017.docx7
Part D – Discussion on Participative Budgeting (20% of the assignment assessment marks)
You are required to provide an essay or report of approx 500 words or less (excluding attachments and references), accompanied by
relevant calculations, in MS Word orPDF format. The style of your essay or report is not important provided your ideas, arguments and/or
3 recommendations etc are clear and understandable and properly referenced using a accepted reference technique
An effective budget converts the goals and objectives of an organization into data. The budget serves as a blueprint for management’s plans. The budget is also the basis for control. Management performance can be evaluated by comparing actual results with the budget.
Thus, creating the budget is essential for the successful operation of an organization.
Finding the resources to implement the budget – that is, moving from a starting point to the ultimate goal – requires the extensive use of human resources. How managers perceive their roles in the process of budgeting is important to the successful use of the budget as an effective tool for planning, communicating, and controlling.
Required:
Discuss the behavioural implications of planning and control when a company’s management employs:
i. An imposed budgetary approach
ii. A participative budgetary approach
Illustrate your discussion with reference to your report to Paulo Farmer in Part C, discussing how Paulo might respond to the various outcomes of Part C if the budget had been imposed and contrast that with how he might respond (if differently) had the budget been prepared using a participative budgetary approach.
Assignment Preparation and Presentation (10% of the assignment assessment marks)
You are required to present and lodge your assignment in a manner that complies with the requirements set out in the Assignment Details and on Learnline. Requirements would include such elements as layout, grammar, referencing, and various lodgement details. Reports should be easy to read and understand, demonstrating good writing skills.
A word limit has been suggested for parts B, C and D The suggested length is provided so that you can gauge the extent of the work required. Marks will not be deducted if you exceed the recommended length, however essays that significantly exceed the recommended length will not be given any additional marks. A concise clear answer will attract more marks than a long rambling one.
3Any generally accepted referencing technique is acceptable however it should be used consistently throughout your paper
School of Law and Business
Semester 2, 2011 Page 5 of
Faculty of Law Business and Arts ACT507-assignment2-sem022017.docx7

Literature revierw of RADICLE PRODUCT INNOVATION include atleast 6 Academic peer review journals

International Journal of Contemporary Management, 14(1), 67–78 2015 TYPES OF INNOVATIONS IN CULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS Mateusz Lewandowski* Abstract Background. Gathering information on the innovativeness of public organizations is a contemporary challenge for public policy-makers. The arts and culture sector in Poland needs more coherent and comprehensive data regarding innovations. Yet, there is no single classification of innovations, which could underlay development of a system for monitoring innovativeness of this sector. Research aims. The purpose of this study is to cognize the types of innovations in cultural organizations and to propose their consistent typology as a basis for further research. Method. Typologies of innovations derived from literature review has been grouped according to the components of the Aesthetic-Economic Situation Model. This revealed the potential areas where innovations may appear, what was verified through an instrumental case study. In order to collect the empirical data triangulated methods were applied and encompassed: structured interview, organizational documents analysis, such as annual reports and organizational website, and visual sociology comprising analysis of photographs. Key findings. Typology of innovations provided by Oslo Manual has limited applicability to draw the full picture of innovativeness of art and cultural organizations, however this classification, after some definitional modifications, may be useful. Nevertheless, additional types such as cultural innovation, perception innovation, and functional innovation have been confirmed to appear in organization from the arts and culture sector. Keywords: Innovation, Typology, Cultural organization, Public sector INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND Monitoring innovativeness of public cultural sector is a challenge for various bodies. Such information is important in the decision-making processes of cultural policy, and may for instance, be collected by culture observatories. Because the general classification of innovation provided by Oslo Manual does not reflect the essence of cultural activities sufficiently, and due to various and incoherent typologies of innovations in culture sector (Bakhshi & Throsby, 2010; Varbanova, 2013), some verification and systematization of those typologies is needed. The aim of this study is to cognize the types of innovations in cultural organizations and to propose their consistent typology that could possibly facilitate the analysis of innovativeness of public cultural organizations. Thus, this study first reviews previous works on innovations in culture organizations, then proposes some systematization and development of innovation typology, which is in the end examined and in a case study. * Dr Mateusz Lewandowski, Jagiellonian University, Poland. – – – – – 68 International Journal of Contemporary Management, 14(1), 67–78 2015 Typologies of Innovations in Cultural Institutions Until recently only a few studies addressed the issue of classification of innovations across cultural institutions. They indicated some innovation types specific to the culture sphere (Zolberg, 1980; Thomasson, 2010; Varbanova, 2013; Lewandowski, 2014). Garrido and Camarero (2010, p. 219) differentiated such innovation as: (a) product innovations concerned with delivery of new services, activities and improvements or variations in works displayed, (b) technical and technological innovations related to implementation of technologies in the realm of products, services and production processes, (c) organizational and managerial innovations concerned with organizational structures and administrative processes. Importantly, innovations connected with marketing and dissemination of museums are also classified in this group. Bakhshi and Throsby (2010, pp. 4–20) in turn differentiated (a) innovation in audience reach, including methods for expanding its audience and new ways of presenting cultural contents to current audience, (b) innovation in art form development, including e.g. artistic experiments, (c) innovation in value creation, including new ways of measuring economic and cultural value created for various groups of stakeholders, as well as new methods of harnessing these values by politicians, organizations funding cultural activity or private investors, (d) business model innovation, in particular centred on financing cultural activities. Other classifications were provided by Varbanova (2013, pp. 13–14) – she distinguished (a) program innovations, (b) process innovations, (c) marketing innovations or innovations in distribution of cultural products and services, (d) innovations in raising resources, (e) organizational and managerial innovations, (f) technical innovations. Those classifications of innovations take into consideration the specifics behind cultural activities, yet they stir a terminology chaos and make it difficult to define all types of innovations in a coherent manner. On the one hand, to some extent, it is possible to utilize the Oslo Manual classification given that: 1. Product innovations apply to goods as well as cultural and artistic services resulting from production and creative processes; 2. Marketing innovations also cover the manner of distributing cultural products and services, so thus innovations in audience reach; 3. Organizational innovations encompass the use of diverse management tools, including implementation of business models related to financing cultural activities. On the other hand, a part of the core of cultural activity is still not captured. Zolberg (1980) outlined an aesthetic innovation regarding serious or academic art and music, pointing out the difference and relationship between innovations by artists and innovations by institutions. An aesthetic innovation by an artist is related to the artist who “goes beyond the exist- – – – – – M. Lewandowski, Types of Innovations… 69 ing corpus by stylistic or technical development, stylistic variation or revolutionary departure from existing canons or conventions” (Zolberg, 1980, 220). However, the existing canons or conventions are defined by the institutions implementing aesthetic innovations by (a) acknowledging the value of new works, (b) including previously excluded work, or (c) rejecting previously included works (Zolberg, 1980). From a different standpoint it concerns the ontological status of the work of art, which, in relation to the new forms of art related to Internet, was investigated by Thomasson (2010), who argued that the assumption on the work of art, on the level of ontological dimension, impacts the openness to see and acknowledge some of the new kinds of art. The above classifications present different approaches to innovations in arts and cultural organizations. They may be synthesized on the basis of two models – Aesthetic Situation Model and Economic Situation Model (Korzeniowska-Marciniak, 2001) – embracing two important realms of artistic activity – aesthetic and economic. In fact, they are the two main theoretical frameworks which underlay discussion on innovations in cultural organizations (Zolberg, 1980; Bakhshi & Throsby, 2010; KorzeniowskaMarciniak, 2001). The Economic one considers a work of art or a cultural service from the economic perspective, and treats them as products – the results of production processes. Such a product is sold or exchanged for other goods on the market. This research tradition has shown some specificities of this market, like Baumols costs disease (Heilbrun, 2003) for instance. This approach suggests that, to some extent, the traditional innovation typology provided by Oslo Manual (OECD/Eurostat, 2005) can be applied for gathering information on artistic and cultural products. Also a concept of the economic situation of the work of art, derived from art literature supports this opinion (Korzeniowska-Marciniak, 2001). However, artistic literature strongly emphasizes the artistic point of view on innovations in artistic and cultural organizations, which may be depicted by the concept of an artistic situation (Korzeniowska-Marciniak, 2001), which incorporates the differentiation between innovations by artists and innovations by institutions indicated by Zolberg (1980). Both – the Aesthetic Situation Model and the Economic Situation Model – have been previously in the literature (Lewandowski, 2013) combined into one – Aesthetic-Economic Situation Model – which is more easy to apply (Figure 1). – – – – – 70 International Journal of Contemporary Management, 14(1), 67–78 2015 Figure 1. Aesthetic-Economic Situation Model Source: adapted from (Lewandowski, 2013; Korzeniowska-Marciniak, 2001). This model indicates four key elements, which may be used for the synthesis of innovation typologies: 1. Key processes (creative process, art dissemination, art perception, art exchange), 2. Key actors (artist, art lover-customer, art broker), 3. The work of art itself, 4. Two main realms to assess are its economic and aesthetic value. On the basis of this model previously identified types of innovations were grouped according to a particular component of the aestheticeconomic situation model (table 2). A closer look at table 2 shows that there are many similarities between innovation types indicated by different authors. Generally, the main types identified in Oslo Manual apply, and comprise: product, process, marketing and organizational innovations, and, regarding previous editions of the Manual, also technological innovations. However, an updated understanding of those types of innovations is useful: 1. Product innovations – a new or improved cultural, artistic or handcraft product, comprising a good or service, 2. Process innovations – innovations in the process of production, preparation and delivery of cultural, artistic and handcraft products and services, 3. Organizational innovations – a new or improved instruments of management and organization, 4. Marketing innovations – a new or improved instruments of marketing and dissemination of cultural content. ECONOMIC REALM (exchange participants & economic values) AESTHETIC REALM (human & values) Artist Work of Art Broker Customer – Art lover Work of art Art creation Exchange Art dissemination Art perception Ar Exchange Art dissemination Ar – – – – – M. Lewandowski, Types of Innovations… 71 Table 2. Innovation Types and the Elements of Aesthetic-Economic Situation Model The element of aesthetic-economic situation model Innovations types indicated in the reviewed literature Art creation process innovation; technical and technological innovations related to implementation of technologies in the production processes Work of art product innovation; program innovation; aesthetic innovation by artist; aesthetic innovation by institution; service innovation; new concepts of service; innovation in art form development, including e.g. artistic experiments, product innovations concerned with delivery of new services, activities and improvements or variations in works displayed; technical and technological innovations related to implementation of technologies in the realm of products and services Art perception new ways of presenting cultural contents to current audience Art dissemination new systems for delivering services; process innovation; marketing innovations; marketing innovations or innovations in distribution of cultural products and services; innovations connected with marketing and dissemination of museums; innovation in audience reach, including methods for expanding its audience Art exchange new platforms for cooperation with a client; marketing innovations Economic realm innovation in economic value creation, including new ways of measuring economic value created for various groups of stakeholders, as well as new methods of harnessing these values by politicians, organizations funding cultural activity or private investors; business model innovation, in particular centred on financing cultural activities Aesthetic realm innovation in cultural value creation, including new ways of measuring cultural value created for various groups of stakeholders, as well as new methods of harnessing these values by politicians, organizations funding cultural activity or private investors Other innovations in raising resources; organizational and managerial innovations; technical innovations; organizational and managerial innovations concerned with organizational structures and administrative processes; application of new technologies Source: own elaboration based on (Lewandowski, 2013; Korzeniowska-Marciniak, 2001; Garrido & Camarero, 2010; Bakhshi & Throsby, 2010; Varbanova, 2013; Zolberg, 1980). More culture specific innovations that are not comprised in the above classification concern the perception of art, new forms of art, and new types of outcomes pursued by the cultural organization or policy-makers. – – – – – 72 International Journal of Contemporary Management, 14(1), 67–78 2015 In order to verify how this theoretical concept of three types of innovations can be applied to analysis of innovations in a cultural centre, a case study has been conducted. METHOD Data Collection Process and Methods In order to achieve the research aims, the instrumental case study (Stake 2005) was undertaken. The data has been collected through a questionnaire based structured interview (computer assisted personal interview), an analysis of organization’s documents and website, and visual sociology (Konecki 2005). The questionnaire based structured interview (30 minutes) was conducted with the director of Silesian Culture Center in Nak³o Œl¹skie (CEKUS). The interview comprised inquiries on indicated types of innovations. Analysis of organization’s documentation comprised program and financial annual reports which contained the full summary of CEKUS activities in 2013 and 2014. They were analysed for the category of outcomes of the new services and profit generated. Analysis of organization’s website was conducted to describe the organizational setting of CEKUS. Also the Chronicle of CEKUS was analysed, and 248 photographs in particular were analysed and coded using Atlas.ti software. The codes designated the areas of innovative solutions, and the number of photographs reflect the activity of CEKUS in a particular area. This visual sociology method was used to confirm previous findings, which is one of the possible applications of this method (Konecki 2005). Gathered information concerned years 2013 and 2014, and was collected in the beginning of 2015. Setting Silesian Culture Center in Nak³o Œl¹skie was formally established on 27 April 2012 by adoption of the resolution of the Council of the District of Tarnowskie Góry. It started to operate on 01 January 2013. CEKUS is located in a palace completed in 1858, which, since then, for the first ninety years served as the residence of Henckel von Donnersmarck, and for the next sixty years, served as an agricultural school, and between 2006-2010 as an art gallery. The building has undergone extensive renovation in the years 2010-2012. The palace has been restored to its original appearance. The interiors and decorative elements such as stairs and wooden railings on a representative staircase, panelling in the vestibule, accidentally discovered ceiling in one of the rooms on the ground floor (www.cekus.pl). – – – – – M. Lewandowski, Types of Innovations… 73 RESULTS Conducted structured interview revealed and Chronicle analysis confirmed that, in the researched period, some new methods of influencing audience perception of cultural content were implemented. They comprised: 1. Lighting methods of exhibits, scenes, or event venues (10 pictures), 2. Place of exhibition, presentation or event (9 pictures), 3. Methods or principles of exposure (45 pictures), 4. Type of participation (69 pictures), 5. Methods for increasing the comfort of acoustic or visual reception (18 pictures), 6. Methods to improve the quality of sound or image (6 pictures). Regarding cultural innovations structured interview revealed and Chronicle analysis confirmed that in the researched period CEKUS implemented: 1. Works of art or design (which were part of the décor, not of the exhibits) (14 pictures), 2. Values (6 pictures), 3. Dress code and appearance principles (24 pictures), 4. The initiation of new or significant change in existing traditions or customs of the local community and audience (3 pictures), 5. The creation or significant change of ceremonies, rituals or rites of the local community (13 pictures), 6. The initiation of cyclic cultural events, which in the future may become part of the tradition (10 pictures). The director of CEKUS pointed also that new patterns of communication and new awards or penalties were introduced, but no pictures were found to support this. The reason for this is that it is very rare and difficult to capture on a photograph the awards, penalties and communication forms. New functions were deliberately pursued by CEKUS in the research period. The structured interview revealed and Chronicle analysis confirmed that functional innovations comprised: 1. Meeting the aesthetic needs (14 pictures), 2. Meeting the needs of artists and creators to promote and integrate (27 pictures), 3. Shaping demeanour and customs (2 pictures), 4. Transferring knowledge and skills (15 pictures), 5. Protecting cultural heritage (13 pictures), 6. Amateur artist development (10 pictures), 7. Social integration (31 pictures). Uncaptured on photographs remains generating revenue or profit for the institution, which was strongly emphasized by the director and is – – – – – 74 International Journal of Contemporary Management, 14(1), 67–78 2015 confirmed by the analysis of financial annual reports (loss in 2013, profit in 2014). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The study conducted allowed to cognize the types of innovations which appear in cultural organizations. Thus, the findings support the conclusion that the classification provided by the Oslo Manual should be further developed in order to facilitate the analysis of innovativeness of the cultural sector. Except product, process, marketing and organizational innovations, there are innovations related with (a) new types of the outcomes of cultural activity which are deliberately pursued (functional innovation), (b) new or significantly changed elements of culture, including organizational culture (cultural innovation), and (c) new or improved methods of perception of cultural content provided for the audience (perception innovation). Each of these three innovations is discussed below. Next some suggestions for further research related with those innovations are indicated. Finally, concluding remarks point out the key findings. Perception Innovation In the aesthetic realm there are two major processes which are the essence of cultural and artistic activity – creation and audience participation. Especially innovations related to art perception, shown in table 2, insufficiently encompass the forms of participation. McCarthy and Jinnett (2001) indicated three forms of participation in the arts: hands-on (direct active), through the attendance (direct passive), and through the media (indirect). These three forms of perception vary depending on the kind of art work. Also, technological innovations impact the perception and participation in artistic and cultural acts (eg. picture or sound quality depends on the equipment), like the case of implementation of museums PDAs and information kiosks which influence the ways in which visitors examine and experience exhibits (vom Lehn & Heath 2005). In fact, innovations in the area of art perception depend on primary innovative products or technological innovations. Changes in perception are one of the effects of innovations, however they may also be set as a criterion to distinguish innovation type. On the one hand, it blurs the line when one innovation becomes another, and makes the research process more difficult. On the other hand, regarding arts, perception is a key process, so the typology of innovations should embrace such innovations as a separate type. This should enrich the cognition of innovations in cultural institutions. – – – – – M. Lewandowski, Types of Innovations… 75 Cultural Innovation Artistic activity is too narrow to depict the variety of actions and activities undertaken by cultural institutions and communities. Thus, it is better to speak about wide cultural activity, encompassing artistic one. Such cultural activities would embrace for instance fine arts, amateur art, workshops, cultural tourism, preserving and disseminating heritage, cultural education, social events, lectures, meetings, concerts, hand craft etc. This fits not only various traditional institutional forms, such as theatre, opera, library, museum, gallery, cultural centre, but also to all mixed activities undertaken by cultural organizations (public, business, and civic) and communities. Proposed framework, based on aesthetic-economic situation, may be applied for the wide range of cultural activities. Moreover, innovations concern also norms, ceremonies, rituals, symbols, behaviours, community events, traditions etc. Such innovations are not goods nor services, but a separate type of innovation. They encompass aesthetic innovations (Zolberg, 1980), innovations in organizational culture (Bia³oñ 2010, 21), or ethical innovations (Schumacher & Wasieleski, 2013). Functional Innovation An aesthetic and economic perspective is not sufficient to evaluate the value of cultural or artistic goods and services. The theory of cultural functions describes different aspects of such a value and indicates that cultural and artistic activities: (a) maintain and improve social integration, (b) play an important role in upbringing, (c) form identity, (d) educate, (e) allow to satisfy aesthetic needs, (f) provide entertainment and allow to enjoy leisure, (g) enhance therapy, treatment or recovery, (h) support economic growth (Lewandowski, 2011, 32–33). All of them may be considered as a part of public value (Moore, 2014; Dooren, Bouckaert, & Halligan, 2015; Scott, 2013). Thus, an innovation in value creation should embrace all these dimensions. Such an innovation may be understood as using culture to create value in a new dimension (reflected by the function of culture) or a new methods of harnessing these values by politicians, organizations funding cultural activity or private investors. New ways of measuring value created for various groups of stakeholders would be rather an organizational innovation related to controlling. Implications for Further Research The study conducted confirmed that innovations specific for culture sector exist. It points out a few directions for further research. First, it could focus investigating innovativeness of cultural organizations including functional, cultural and perception innovations. Also the relations between different dimensions of innovativeness seem an under-explored field. For – – – – – 76 International Journal of Contemporary Management, 14(1), 67–78 2015 instance how do cultural innovations impact product innovations? Second, the applicability of those types of innovations to other organizations, not only public but also business and non-governmental could be explored. Third, the specific types of other sub-sectors of the public sector can be investigated for specific innovation types. Concluding Remarks Several incoherent typologies of innovations in cultural organizations have been presented in the literature. Their inconsistency hinders gathering and comparing information on innovativeness of cultural organizations. This study built on Oslo Manual classification, on culture specific typologies, an Aesthetic-Economic Situation Model and provided more consistent classification encompassing seven types of innovations. 1. Product innovations – a new or improved cultural, artistic or handcraft product, comprising a good or service, 2. Process innovations – innovations in the process of production, preparation and delivery of cultural, artistic and handcraft products and services, 3. Organizational innovations – a new or improved instruments of management and organization, 4. Marketing innovations – a new or improved instruments of marketing and dissemination of cultural content. 5. Functional innovation – a new type of effect (regarding the cultural function) to achieve by application of a good or service, 6. Cultural innovation – a new or significantly changed element of culture, including organizational culture and aesthetic innovation, 7. Perception innovations – a new or improved methods of influence on the audience perception of cultural content (eg. the method of exposure, the type of participation, the methods of lighting, methods of using other senses, types of audience participation in culture). This classification requires further empirical verification duet to limitation of this study. It also points some new areas of investigation. REFERENCES Bakhshi, H., & Throsby, D. (2010). Culture of Innovation An economic analysis of innovation. Retrieved from http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/culture_of_innovation.pdf Bia³oñ, L. (Ed.). (2010). Zarz¹dzanie dzia³alnoœci¹ innowacyjn¹. Warszawa: Placet. Dooren, W. Van, Bouckaert, G., & Halligan, J. (2015). Performance Management in the Public Sector (2nd-nd ed.). Routledge. Garrido, M., & Camarero, C. (2010). Assessing the impact of organizational learning and innovation on performance in cultural organizations. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 15(3), 215–232. Heilbrun, J. (2003). Baumols cost disease. In R. Towse (Ed.), A Handbook of Cultural Economics (pp. 91–101). Cheltenham / Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar. – – – – – M. Lewandowski, Types of Innovations… 77 Konecki, K.T. (2005). Wizualne wyobra¿enia. G³ówne strategie badawcze w socjologii wizualnej a metodologia teorii ugruntownej. Przegl¹d Socjologii Jakoœciowej (QSR Polish Edition), 1(1). Korzeniowska-Marciniak, M. (2001). Miêdzynarodowy rynek dzie³ sztuki. Kraków: Universitas. Lewandowski, M. (2011). Innowacje w zarz¹dzaniu instytucjami kultury (1st ed.). Katowice: Wydawnictwo Con Arte. Lewandowski, M. (2013). Zarz¹dzanie strategiczne w instytucjach kultury (1st ed.). Katowice: Wydawnictwo Con Arte. Lewandowski, M. (2014). Innowacje w us³ugach instytucji kultury. Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego We Wroc³awiu, (335), 264–278. McCarthy, K. F., & Jinnett, K. (2001). A New Framework for Building Participation in the Arts. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monograph_reports/2005/MR1323.pdf Moore, M. H. (2014). Public value accounting: Establishing the philosophical basis. Public Administration Review, 74(4), 465–477. OECD/Eurostat. (2005). Oslo manual: Guidelines for collecting and interpreting innovation data. Oslo Manual. Schumacher, E. G., & Wasieleski, D. M. (2013). Institutionalizing Ethical Innovation in Organizations: An Integrated Causal Model of Moral Innovation Decision Processes. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(1), 15–37. Scott, C. A. (Ed.). (2013). Museums and Public Value. Creating Sustainable Futures. Farnham: Ashgate. Stake, R. E. (2005). Qualitative case study. In Y. S. L. Norman K. Denzin (Ed.), The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research (3rd ed.). Sage Publications. Thomasson, A. (2010). Ontological Innovation in Art. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 68(2), 119–130. Varbanova, L. (2013). Strategic Management in the Arts. New York: Routledge. Vom Lehn, D., & Heath, C. (2005). Accounting for New Technology in Museum Exhibitions. International Journal of Arts Management, 7(3), 11–21. Zolberg, V. (1980). Displayed Art and Performed Music: Selective Innovation and the Structure of Artistic Media. The Sociological Quarterly, 21(2), 219–231. – – – – – 78 International Journal of Contemporary Management, 14(1), 67–78 2015 TYPY INNOWACJI W INSTYTUCJACH KULTURY Abstrakt T³o badañ. Pozyskiwanie informacji o innowacyjnoœci organizacji publicznych jest jednym ze wspó³czesnych wyzwañ dla mened¿erów publicznych. W przypadku polskiego sektora kultury potrzebna s¹ kompleksowe i spójne dane dotycz¹ce innowacji. Jednak jak do tej pory nie ma jednej klasyfikacji innowacji, która mog³aby byæ podstaw¹ do stworzenia systemu monitorowania innowacyjnoœci tego sektora. Cele badañ. Celem pracy jest poznanie specyficznych typów innowacji w instytucjach kultury oraz stworzenie ich spójnej typologii jako podstawy do dalszych badañ. Metodyka. Typologie innowacji, zidentyfikowane na podstawie analizy literatury przedmiotu, zosta³y pogrupowane wed³ug elementów modelu sytuacji estetyczno-ekonomicznej. Na tej podstawie wskazane zosta³y obszary, w których potencjalnie mog¹ wyst¹piæ innowacje, co zosta³o zweryfikowane poprzez instrumentalne studium przypadku. Do zebrania danych zastosowano triangulacjê takich metod jak: strukturyzowany wywiad kwestionariuszowy, analiza dokumentów organizacyjnych, takich jak roczne sprawozdania i strona internetowa, oraz socjologia wizualna obejmuj¹ca analizê zdjêæ. Kluczowe wnioski. Typologia innowacji zaproponowana w Podrêczniku Oslo ma ograniczone mo¿liwoœci zastosowania dla pe³nego monitorowania innowacyjnoœci w organizacjach kultury, choæ po pewnych uœciœleniach definicyjnych mo¿e byæ wykorzystana do tego celu. Niemniej, potwierdzone zosta³o wystêpowanie tak¿e innych rodzajów innowacji w instytucjach kultury, takich jak innowacja kulturowa, innowacja percepcyjna, czy innowacja funkcyjna. S³owa kluczowe: innowacja, typologia, instytucje kultury, sektor publiczny – – – – – Copyright of Contemporary Management Quarterly / Wspólczesne Zarzadzanie is the property of Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Management & Social Communication and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

Research paper poster

NURS 3046 Nursing Project            Assignment 1 (2,000 words)

 

STUDENT NAME:   STUDENT ID:

 

This is the new template to use in SP6.

 

 

Background

Workplace violence is a significant stressor for nurses working in Emergency Department settings worldwide. It is estimated that a quarter of all health employees are likely to experience violent incidents, either verbal or physical, in their direct patient care during their career. Globally and within Australia, there is an increasing level of workplace patient-related violence toward health care workers in Emergency Departments. Notably, nurses have been identified as the most at risk health workers to be involved in aggressive situations with patients or relatives that result in physical injuries and psychological harm (Pich, et al. 2010).  Violence is a significant occupational hazard, but is often under-reported by nurses. Violence influences nurses’ retention, high turnover decisions and reduces nurses’ work productivity. Studies show that nurses working in Emergency Departments (ED) experience physical assaults at the highest rate of all nurses . In a US study, ‘ninety four percent of nurses experienced at least one post-traumatic stress disorder symptom after a violent event, with 17% having scores high enough to be considered probably for PTSD’. But alarmingly, there is an under-reporting of workplace violence and aggression which has been attributed, in part, to the poor response by managers to deal with the problem ((Pich, et al. 2010).  In order to address patient-related violence, it is essential to understand the complexity of the problem. One aspect is to gain insight into the perceptions of nurses who have experienced violence in the ED setting.

 

Research question: What are nurses’ experiences of patient-related violence whilst working in the Emergency Department setting?

The research question is highly significant in clinical practice because nurses’ experiences and coping strategies can provide insights into how they cope as they strive to provide person-centred care in a workplace with escalating levels of patient and relative-related violence ((Pich, et al. 2010).  Whilst the issue of workplace aggression in the ED is complex and multi-factorial, exploring this problem from the nurses’ perspectives is imperative.  Findings could inform safe work practices, interventions to prevent patient aggression, and provide care to ED nurses after such events ((Ramacciati, et al, 2015). Findings could provide local and international nurse leaders and managers with strategies to improve safety in work environments and occupational health and safety for nurses. Findings could also be used by nurse educators to raise awareness and promote effective strategies in the nursing curriculum. The research question is therefore highly relevant to clinical practice and has wider implications for the profession and the provision of safe working environments for all nurses working in Emergency Department settings.

 

SummarY ANALYSIS of Four (4) Primary Research Articles

Paper 1

 

Tan, MF, Lopez, V & Cleary, M. (2015). ‘Nursing management of aggression in a Singapore emergency department: A qualitative study’, Nursing & Health Sciences, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 307-312.

 

The study uses a qualitative research method that involves observations and interviews on the selected population. The purpose of the study is to evaluate concerns by nurses in Singapore working at emergency departments about aggressive incidents of violence that is being encountered. The study also seeks to identify the sources of violence, how it can be managed and proposal of solutions on how to manage such situations in the future and other mitigation measures to take on the part of nurses and the medical facilities. This study has specifically addressed four concerns namely: the impact of aggressive patients on nurses, how nurses assess aggressive behaviour in patients, how they manage them and the organisational support and responsiveness. The study design entails a cohort study whereby the researcher makes prospective observations on the area of study with the view of identifying the concerns raised and seeking ways and solutions for addressing them. The population of the study involve ten nurses selected from an acute emergency hospital department in Singapore. This population is used as a representative of such facilities in Singapore to help put into perspective the aggressive violence concerns cited by nurses and other health practitioners in the country. The results indicate that the nursing profession in Singapore is dominated by females. The hospital systems in Singapore also have no policies and systems to support an aggressive-free workplace environment contract to what developed nations have. The study concludes that more research should be done on strategies to enhance better support for nurses working in emergency department and others. The limitation of the study is that it is not comprehensive and was based on one facility and the sample size may not represent the true concerns as cited. The study also states shortage of registered nurses across the country.  The implication of the study on practice is that there is need for legislation of policy and educational support for nurses working in emergency departments. More research has to be conducted on aggression related concerns in emergency departments of hospital facilities in Singapore in order to bring a better outcome for patients and nurses.

 

Paper 2

 

Catlette, M. (2005). A Descriptive Study of the Perceptions of Workplace Violence and Safety Strategies of Nurses Working in Level I Trauma Centers’, Journal of Emergency Nursing, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 519-525.

 

The qualitative descriptive study aims to explore the workplace perceptions by nurses on violence and the level of strategies that have been out in place in level one trauma centres. The study also seeks to address the violence that nurses face in their areas of work being the biggest group of employees in the healthcare industry. The study design used in the analysis is that of systematic review of the highest levels of trauma centres in hospital facilities. The population of the study entails eight registered nurses from two level-1 trauma centres in the country as a representative population of nurses in the chosen facilities. The research method entails a descriptive research method that is designed to depict all the participant of the study in a very accurate manner. The research method uses three main strategies to collect information that include observations, case study and an in-depth study of the case study which in this case is the level one trauma centres. The results indicate that emergency centres have inadequate safety measures that make nurses in those facilities vulnerable to violence. The study concluded that there was need for hospital facilities to put in place adequate measures to address violence and aggression from patients and their family members. The limitations of the study include the fact that the population was small and may thus give a credible representation of the situations and concern at the chosen facilities. The study was also not comprehensive which gives recommendations for further research on the issue in the future. There is also need for larger population samples to confirm specific concerns that were studied by the case study. The implications of the study on the nursing practice is that its findings can be used to inform the policy for health care facilities in managing aggressive violence from patients on nurses. The identified inadequate measures may also be enhanced to improve the workplace experience and conditions for nurses.

 

 

 

Paper 3

 

Pich, J, Hazelton, M, Sundin, D & Kable, A. (2011). ‘Patient-related violence at triage: A qualitative descriptive study’, International Emergency Nursing, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 12-19.

 

The descriptive qualitative study explores out into the perspective of violence related experiences that triage nurses encounter in emergency departments in regional Australia. The study also seeks to demonstrate how nurses in Australia and global health care industry are prone to patient related violence that is both verbal and physical. The study design uses purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews in forms of control study that entails sampling a single facility to identify how the identified concern fares. The population of the study involves a sample population of six triage nurses at a teaching and referral hospital facility, representing the situation at the facility concerning the aggressive violence related incidents on nurses.  The research method used entails a qualitative and quantitative sample that entailed observations and evaluation of samples about the subject of research. The results of the study indicate that all participants in the research reported that they experienced episodes of violence in their course of work. The reported incidents of violence were also being perpetrated at an increasing rate and intensity. The study conclude that the violence being experienced was mainly due to a number of precipitating factors such as long waiting times by patients, substance abuse and alcoholism among patients seeking medical attention. Organisational factors also contributed to the situation based on the lack of training on how to minimise aggression, length of reporting processes and lack of formal briefing whenever violence incidents occur. The limitation of the study is that it involved only one facility and the population used was not credible enough to represent the true situation in the hospital facilities. The implications of the study on nursing practice are to come up with strategies to totally eliminate patient-related violence

 

Paper 6

 

Ramacciati, N, Ceccagnoli, A & Addey, B. (2015). ‘Violence against nurses in the triage area: An Italian qualitative study’, International Emergency Nursing, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 274-280.

 

 

The phenomenological qualitative study investigates the feelings of nurses following episodes of aggressive violence from patients in different hospitals in the regions of Tuscany, Italy. The study also aims to demonstrate how healthcare professional are increasingly finding themselves in violence situations especially those who work in emergency departments. The study design entails a cohort study whereby the researcher makes prospective observations on the area of study with the view of identifying the concerns raised and seeking ways and solutions for addressing them. The research method used is stratified sampling which entails a purposive sample of nine nurses selected from seven different emergency departments of healthcare facilities. Results from the study indicate that most nurses find themselves inevitable in cases of violent episodes by patients. The study also indicates that most nurses have been accustomed to high levels of violence. Nurses are also aware that they are among the causes of conflict with patients that result in aggressive violence and that the gender role in the nursing profession plays a significant role about the response that they get when interacting with patients. In conclusion, episodes of violent encounters involving nurses and other healthcare professions have been increasing worldwide. Healthcare professionals face more violence than prisons or other correctional facilities. Despite the guidelines issued to manage violence, nurses and other healthcare practitioners continue to be at the risk of violence from patients. The limitation of the study is its representative sample that is fairly small to give a credible and valid analysis of the true situation about violence in the healthcare facilities. The implication of the violence on nurses is that its continued perpetration poses serious and severe costs to the healthcare system and the interaction of nurses and patients and the offer of medication and nursing services.

 

Discussion

 

From the four case analysis summarised above, it is evident that violence is very visible in most hospital facilities and specifically in the emergency departments. It is also evident that the issue is caused by a multiple of factors that include policy and procedures guidelines by healthcare facilities that are not adequate to address the problem (Catlette, 2005).  In Tan, et al, (2015) 30 percentages of the nurses interviewed indicated that they faced violent aggressions at their place of work. Populations used in the studies indicated that the hospital systems were the cause of the problem such as delays in offer of healthcare services that led to frustrations among patients resulting in aggressive behaviour. Catlette (2005), indicated that most hospital facilities did not put in place adequate policy framework for managing aggressive behaviour and patient violence. The practitioners in the facilities also were not well prepped and trained about the incidents of violence in ED. The ED is also identified as a high risk area for aggressive behaviour by patients causing inevitable problems to arise, putting staff another patients at risk. For instance, in one hospital under study, there were over 110 incidents reported in a period of five months (Catlette, 2005).  Three of the four case studies underscored the lack of training in nurses to know how to identify and manage violent situations. Most of the studies concur that nurses are inadequately prepared to manage the violence situations that they face (Ramacciati, et al, 2015). The fact that most nurses are of the female gender is also a contributing factor to the aggression behaviour mainly by male patients. Most violent episodes of patient with nurses also occurred during the night shifts as a common factor. Therefore, from the analysis of the four cases, the research methodologies used appropriately identify the issue of aggressive violence by patients to nurses is a real problem by a >50 confidence level that the issue needs to be significantly addressed (Tan, et al, 2015). (Tan, et al, 2015, Catlette, 2005, Pich, et al, 2011 and Ramacciati, et al, 2015) uses similar study design; all the four cases have similarities in the study population and durations of the study. All the studies used cognitive methodologies that were appropriate in evaluating the issue under study. All the studies use women as their population. Gaps in the studies include the fact that only further studies in the emergency departments can identify the most appropriate strategies for managing aggressive behaviour by patients. Some of the studies were also not conclusive in their implications in medical practice hence may not be used appropriately as a basis for informing policy in ED for instance, the use of 8 registered nurses from 2 level-1 facilities is not a sufficient representation of the healthcare system in a country (Catlette, 2005). The limitation of the studies is that they involved female nurses majorly which makes them lack the perspective of male nurses and the possibility of using them as a mitigation measure in the future. Study participants have also mentioned the process of reporting for violence and aggression is complex hence they refuse to report (Pich, et al, 2011).

Most of the findings concur that there is need to have legislation and policy frameworks by healthcare facilities on how to completely eliminate patient violence. Things to address include training nurses to know how to identify aggressive behaviour in patients and streamline the reporting and management guidelines by hospitals. All these are in efforts to completely alleviate the problem (Chapman, et al, 2009). Additionally, participants have recommended security inside ED could decrease aggression and violent behaviours. Most studies underscored the lack of training in nurses to know how to identify and manage violent situations. Most of the studies concur that nurses are inadequately prepared to manage the violence situations that they face (Sato, et al 2013).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conclusion

 

Aggressive violence and behavior is very evident in many hospitals emergency department. The perpetration of aggressive behavior is mainly done by verbal or physical abuse to mainly nurses. The analysis of the issue of aggressive behavior and violence in emergency departments of hospital facilities identified a number of causes for the problem. The identified causes include stress and feeling of being powerless by ED nurses. Patients also get frustrated for waiting for too long to be attended to while other patients become aggressive due to abuse of drugs and alcohol. Another reason why nurses faced violence is that fact that most nurses are of the female gender. From the analysis of the four cases, it was evident that most hospital facilities have no clear guidelines for managing aggressive behavior and violence involving patients (Pich, et al. 2010).  The healthcare professionals are also not well-trained. However, the findings of the analysis would help guide emergency departments of hospitals in Australia and the world over to overcome the problem. The findings of the studies would inform ED departments about the safe work practices that they can implement as well as other interventions to take to prevent aggression on nurses. The findings may also inform the local and international strategies about enhancing the safety of patients and nurses in working in emergence department settings.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

Catlette, M. (2005). A Descriptive Study of the Perceptions of Workplace Violence and Safety Strategies of Nurses Working in Level I Trauma Centers’, Journal of Emergency Nursing, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 519-525.

Chapman, R, Perry, L, Styles, I & Combs, S (2009). ‘Consequences of workplace violence directed at nurses’, British Journal Of Nursing, vol.18, no. 20, pp. 1256-1261.

Pich, J, Hazelton, M, Sundin, D & Kable, A. (2011). ‘Patient-related violence at triage: A qualitative descriptive study’, International Emergency Nursing, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 12-19.

Ramacciati, N, Ceccagnoli, A & Addey, B. (2015). ‘Violence against nurses in the triage area: An Italian qualitative study’, International Emergency Nursing, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 274-280.

Sato, K, Wakabayashi, T, Kiyoshi-Teo, H & Fukahori, H (2013). Factors associated with nurses’ reporting of patients’ aggressive behaviour: A cross-sectional survey’, International Journal of Nursing Studies, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1368-1376.

Tan, MF, Lopez, V & Cleary, M. (2015). ‘Nursing management of aggression in a Singapore emergency department: A qualitative study’, Nursing & Health Sciences, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 307-312.

 

 

 

 

computer networking

Appendix A

SERVICE SHEET

 

The Australian College of Information Technology

 

Company/ Department: Pacific IT Solutions
Address:  
Technician:  
Date Service Requested: Date of Response:       /          / Date Service Completed:         /         /
Service Required:  
   
   
   
Priority: Routine: High: Urgent:
Current System Status: Fully Functional: Intermittent: Not Functional:
COMMENT:
   
  System Specifications:
   
   
Action Taken:  
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Parts Replaced, Installed or Upgraded:  
 
 
   
   
Client Advice:  
   
   
Client Signoff:  

 


Appendix B

Parts Requisition Form

 

Technician: Company:
Date of Order:          /               /  
Phone: Fax:

 

 

Part No.

Description of Components

No of Units.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

 

 

Assignment

 

 

 

Top of Form

You are employed by Pacific IT Solutions in a Desktop Support role. Your job description is to support clients of Pacific IT Solutions in accordance with the requirements of Service Level Agreements (SLA’s) which Pacific IT Solutions has negotiated with the clients and under which Pacific IT Solutions is contractually bound to the clients.

One of the clients that you support is Western Mining. Western Mining has mining and exploration operations in a number of remote locations throughout Australia. Its head office in the CBD is connected by VPN to all of its remote sites.All the computers are networked and each site has a single network access point. Your job is to maintain the workstations in the head office and remote sites. One of your primary responsibilities is to reduce the risk and frequency of faults occurring.

 

Business Organisation

Western Mining headquarters staff are located in the Sydney office. The organisation is split into 4 divisions. Each division is headed up by a Manager.  There is an overall General Manager responsible for providing the strategic direction of the organisation. There is a fortnightly Management Team Meeting between the General Manager and all divisional managers at which strategic and management issues are discussed and decisions made.

The 4 divisions are:

  • Mining operations (800 staff) – This division is responsible for operating the mines
  • Finance and Administration (150 staff) – This division manage both the finances of the organisation, processing of customer and supplier payments and the general office administration of the organisation
  • Exploration  (70 staff) – This division explores and evaluates prospective new mine sites
  • IT (10 staff) – The IT division are responsible for the administration and management of all Western Mining IT systems to support the operations of the other divisions. The IT staff are: The CIO, the network architect, the systems analysis, the network administrator, the systems administrator, and 5 support personnel.

Western Mining uses the Dell™ Vostro™ 220s for its desktop PC’s. Some of the executives also use laptops.

You are provided with the following reference material:

1.Guide to Health and Safety in the Office

2.Dell™ Vostro™ 220s reference and setup guide

3.SLA

4.Managing-Electrical-Risks

Question 1

Question text

What potential threats could arise as a result of having all the workstations permanently connected to the internet?

Question 2

Question text

Using your knowledge of PC maintenance and troubleshooting, what tools or utilities would you use to protect the clients PC’s and reduce the risk and frequency of hardware or software faults occurring as a result of having Internet access provided to all the workstations?List any automated processes you would implement and the frequency of each process.

Question 3

Question text

What other tools or utilities would you use to protect the clients PC’s and reduce the risk and frequency of other general hardware or software faults occurring?List any automated processes you would implement and the frequency of each process. Give examples of software that can be purchased to achieve these types of tasks.

Question 4

Question text

Western Mining’s remote sites draw their electrical power from the onsite generators. The generators provide reliable power 99% of the time. Power outages do sometimes occur especially during thunderstorms. Is this something you should be concerned about? Why or why not? Give a detailed explanation as to why you should be concerned or not for the Western Mining’s Site.

Question 5

Question text

Is there any equipment or devices that you would install to address any electrical power concerns? Provide details and specifications. Use the internet and research equipment and provide specifications that would be able to handle Western Mining’s Operations.

Question 6

Question text

You discover a workstation with a faulty power supply unit (PSU). You believe that the fault is caused by a faulty component in the power supply. You learn that Western Mining happens to keep a supply of these components on site.If you decided to repair the PSU would the repair be classified as electrical work? What regulation deals with this topic? What and the regulatory requirements for someone carrying out this type of work? Ref: managing-electrical-risks Part 4. Managing the risks of electrical work.What should you do to rectify the fault? (Be sure to read the SLA).

Question 7

Question text

Western Mining has requested you to install a computer in their head office reception area so that they can display a multimedia presentation on an LCD screen to visitors.  The company wants the system unit concealed from the public view by enclosing it in a cabinet in the reception area. Do you envision any OHS or operational risks associated with this?Please explain?Reference: Dell Vostro User Guide

Question 8

Question text

If you were to conceal the system unitby enclosing it in the reception furniture, what is the main requirementyou would you need to take into account?Describe exactly how you would install it. Provide Clearance measurements and other factors that might make the new area OHS compliant also. Reference: Dell Vostro User Guide

Question 9

Question text

While onsite you observe an executive using a laptop. He is leaning well forward and appears to having difficultly using the keyboard and reading the screen. Are there any OHS issues here? If there are what would you recommend to rectify them? Provide a list of any additional equipment that would be needed.

Question 10

Question text

Western Mining intends to install graphics applications on some of the workstations. The programs they are installing are Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator, and InDesign all from the CS6Suite. Is the current hardware configuration suitable for these applications? Why or why not? What changes are needed? (See Dell Vostro User Guide Western Mining uses the simple first configuration)

Question 11

Question text

In the last 7 days Western Mining has replaced some old workstations with new Dell™ Vostro™ 3560 laptops. Are these currently covered under the SLA? Why or why not?

Question 12

Question text

You want to arrange the files on the hard drive so that they can be read faster by the system. What tool or utility could use to achieve this?

Question 13

Question text

Using the computer system you are currently working on. Record the following information about your system in the space below Total fragmentation of C: drive___________________________________________ File fragmentation of C: drive ____________________________________________

Question 14

Question text

You want to check if there is any malware on your computer. Using the system you are currently working on, use an appropriate tool or utility to check your system and fix any problems. Record the following information about your system in the space below

What tool or utility did you use?

What Malware was found?

Question 15

Question text

You suspect that the computer you are working on has data corruption on the hard disk. Using the system you are currently working on, use an appropriate tool or utility to verify check this and fix any problems Record the following information about your system in the space below What tool or utility did you use________________________________________________ Errorsfound_______________________________________________________________

Question 16

Question text

Every month you use Seagate ‘Sea Tools for Windows’to check and, if required, repair the hard drives of all Western Mining’s workstations. On one workstation the test has given the following output.

Short Generic – FAIL

This is the first time you have seen this result since the workstation was installed 12 months ago. What does this tell you about the workstation?

Question 17

Question text

a.Write a step by step plan that will solve problem identified in the question above with minimum disruption to the people who use that workstation. b.Complete the Service Sheet in Appendix ‘A’ and the parts requisition form in Appendix ‘B’

Question 18

Question text

A user at a remote site has reported a fault with an application on their desktop. You have not been able to resolve the problem over the phone and want to have a look at it for yourself. What Microsoft tool or utility could assist you?

Question 19

Question text

You are replacing a faulty RAMstick. In what type of packaging should the new RAM stick be stored or transported? What handling precautions should you follow? Why? What are the potential hazards? List any equipment or tools you would use to accomplish the task.

Question 20

Question text

Western Mining decides to buy out another small mining company in the Northern Territory. You receive support requests from this new site. Refer to the SLA provided and describe your obligations (if any) to support this site? Explain the rational for your answer.

Question 21

Question text

Create an organisational chart of key Western Mining personnel. (The chart must be submitted as a pdf.)

Question 22

Question text

What services does the Western Mining IT department provide?

Bottom of Form

 

Negotiation Theory and Practice for Project management

1 Assessment 2 for OPS 938 Trimester-3, 2017 The airline negotiations: A potential joint venture that did not get off the ground The grand vision The context for this case study was that the airline industry was seeking to recover from 9/11, the Sars outbreak and general uncertainty surrounding the Middle East. One industry response to these challenges was to look for opportunities to rationalise and grow through alliances. A European airline was seeking to develop a position in the growing China market. At the same time, an Asian airline was exploring how it might also get into China. The two CEO’s met and agreed that there was potential for cooperation between the two airlines; in particular they saw real potential for cooperation with regard to the provision of maintenance facilities. The two CEO’s articulated their vision and signed a memorandum of agreement to that effect. In the agreement they committed their respective companies to setting up project teams to explore and develop the proposed joint venture. The project team negotiations Each company established project teams (from mid-ranking executives) and the team from the European company flew to Asia. The two project teams built up the negotiation relationship slowly. They spent time on informal social gatherings and in more formal meetings they discussed the possibilities offered by cooperation, though only in broad terms. This approach had (as was the intention) two positive outcomes, one relating to the process, the other to the issue. Firstly, the negotiators established good working relationships between the members of the two teams. This also included a level of interpersonal trust between the negotiators. Secondly, they gained a clear joint understanding about the potential nature and benefits of the proposed joint venture. By spending time just canvassing the issues the negotiators understood the potential for themselves rather than the driver being their CEO’s perception of the future. As a consequence, the project team negotiators endorsed the MOU which had been signed by the CEOs; they agreed to continue further negotiations and they signed a confidentiality agreement. This document was necessary to provide protection for the two companies because the next round of negotiation would necessarily lead to an exchange of commercially sensitive technical and financial information. Perhaps somewhat paradoxically, the confidentially agreement was seen as an expression of mutual trust. Neither side would have been prepared to sign such an agreement unless convinced of the other party’s trustworthiness in keeping to it. Both project teams then returned to their companies and reported favourable outcomes to their respective CEOs. The clear expectation was that the two companies were en route to a successful joint venture. 2 The development of proposals Each project team then set about working out the practicalities of a joint maintenance system. In the airline industry the quality of aircraft maintenance is upheld through complex and rigorous systems that are embedded in the airline’s operations. Not unexpectedly, the European project team developed a proposal around its systems, while the Asian company’s team based its proposal on its operating systems. In fact, the only commonality was the compliance with the aircraft manufacturer’s required safety standards though again the documentary systems were different. It could be argued that, with the benefit of hindsight, the two negotiating teams should have worked as one team (as in the notion of ‘side by side’ problem solving) to develop a proposal. In reality, the task was too complex; each negotiation team needed ready access to technical and systems specialists. In addition, a new ‘joint’ solution would mean either each company then operates under two systems, the joint one in China but their own one in the rest of their operation, or both companies adopting the new system across their entire operations. Again recognising the reality of negotiation, although each project team headed back to their respective companies with the intention of exploring and developing proposals, the more they worked on the proposal the ‘tighter’ it became as they got into more and more detail. On both sides the ‘exploratory proposal’ became a ‘working solution’. The second round of project team negotiations The European team went to Asia again for the next round of negotiations. Based on the outcomes of their previous round of meetings, expectations on both sides were high. At the first meeting, the Europeans put forward their proposal. Rather than discuss this, the Asian airline team put forward their proposal. In the ensuing discussion each side increasingly defended its own proposal and found more fault with the proposal coming from the other side of the table. The interactions became increasingly more difficult and tension rose. After a series of meetings it became clear to all concerned that no progress was being made, nor was it likely to be made. Each team was positioned solidly behind its own proposal and there was no apparent scope for movement towards a solution. In fact, the negotiators did agree on one thing, that they should bring the round of meetings to a close before they got any worse. The Europeans returned home. There was no agreement on the issues. The high level of expected cooperation had not materialised; instead the negotiators now felt, such was the collapse in trust, they could not work together any more. Aftermath and rebuilding Both project teams returned to their respective companies and reflected upon their experience. The fundamentals had not changed even if the process had not worked. The importance of the issue remained high – they needed to meet their respective CEO’s goals and despite all that had happened, the potential for mutual benefit was still present. They realised they needed to try again, but how? If they were to continue then there were basically three options. Firstly, the two negotiating teams could meet again and resume their discussions but this was not likely to be successful given the breakdown in the relationship. Secondly, the issue could be elevated to a higher level and handed back to the CEO’s to meet together again. Although they would probably be more able to clearly see the potential benefits of reaching an agreement they would be facing a win-lose scenario as a result of the outcome of the negotiating teams’ discussions. Thirdly, it might be possible to change the dynamics through involving other participants, in this case through an intermediary. The European company had a good working relationship with a particular aviation industry expert who was Asian and he approached the Asian company and learned from them that they too could still see benefit in continuing discussions. So following a little shuttle diplomacy the further negotiations between the project teams were scheduled in Asia again. 3 The meeting was difficult. Each party outlined its goals and its proposal again. This either/or situation could only be resolved by one company conceding to the other. Progress was made only when this occurred. The Asian negotiators agreed to work within the European company’s proposal. As might be expected, technical and engineering departments in the Asian airline were not pleased with this decision to build the joint venture around the European airline’s systems. While not actively opposing the joint venture they are always ready with issues and concerns. Over a succession of meetings, the negotiators made significant progress on the detail of the proposal. These discussions involved periods when they worked jointly to find ways around their differences. At other times they worked separately to develop revised proposals for further discussion. Through these processes of joint and unilateral problem solving they achieved solutions, which both parties were comfortable with and the negotiating teams returned to their respective companies with their agreement. The closing stages With broad agreement on the way in which the joint venture would work, each company then evaluated the situation it found itself in. The negotiations had reached the ‘end game’. The technical and cost arrangements had been worked out and all that was left to do was finalise the financial arrangements. Broad financial scenarios had been under discussion throughout the negotiation but the time had come to make these specific; in particular, the two companies had to commit to their respective investments into the joint venture and agree on the fine detail of the profit share arrangements. As outlined above although the negotiating teams from the two companies had achieved agreement this was only possible at all because one party (in this case the representatives of the Asian airline) had made a significant concession. While the European company regarded the substance of the agreement as satisfactory and so was in a position to enter into the negotiations on the financials, the Asian company was not ready. Further internal discussions were necessary to address the concerns still being expressed within the airline over having agreed to work with the European system. It was against this background that the airline concluded it was willing to continue discussions on the financial aspects of the arrangement. Aware of the concerns which were still being expressed internally within the Asian airline, the European company decided that although the joint venture was – operationally – a good one it would not proceed to conclude agreement. Its analysis of the forthcoming end game was that in order to achieve an agreement it would have no option but to concede on price; that is, it would have to increase its initial investment and/or make concessions on its share of expected profit if it was going to get the Asian airline to sign the joint venture agreement. The CEO conveyed the decision not to proceed to his Asian counterpart and the joint venture proposal was grounded for good. 4 Case Analysis and Research Report: 1) Define the scope of the negotiation. 2) Discuss what factors need to be taken into account, the quality of the alternatives and their practical implications. 3) Discuss what should be included in the negotiation script for each negotiation party. 4) Discuss what other options than those described in the scenario. 5) What lessons learned from this past negotiation. Develop a strategic analysis of the “end game”, the analysis must critically analyse the negotiation contents, reasons and arguments for the final “no go” decision. Compare the negotiation strategies with those outlined in the Telco negotiations. A copy of this negotiation can be found on the moodle site The assignment is due prior to class Thursday 12th October at Midnight 1 The Telco Negotiation: a business negotiation that connected The background: a measured vision This case study in negotiation relates to a European telecommunications company’s acquisition of a strategic investor stake in an Asia Telecoms operator. The telecommunications industry is in a constant state of flux as new technologies open up new possibilities and new markets. A strong but single-country European telecommunications company (Eurocom) undertook a major review of its future, and concluded that it should expand internationally. Having carefully researched several prospects across the world, it made an exploratory approach to an Asian business conglomerate known to be seeking a partner to assist in the development of one of its own subsidiary telecoms companies (Asiatel) in the region. In fact, the conglomerate had been prospecting Eurocom, and so welcomed the approach. Asiatel had the operating licence, Eurocom the network expertise. It was quickly agreed that the two companies should delegate negotiating teams to explore the potential for cooperation, which would take the form of Eurocom buying part of Asiatel and being involved in the subsequent operation of the company. The critical issues would therefore be the companies’ respective investments in the new company, issues of governance and arrangements for the distribution of future profits. As such, the negotiations would involve both strategic and operational issues. However, the conglomerate had determined that it would sell its share of Asiatel by competitive tender, so several negotiations commenced with different companies, each of which was exploring the prospects of making a bid for Asiatel. The project team negotiations The main negotiations were between mid-level executives and advisers from Eurocom and the conglomerate; while representatives from Asiatel provided input on company-specific business and operational matters. An initial meeting between the parties focused on detailed introductions of Eurocom, the conglomerate and Asiatel, and – perhaps most importantly – the individuals who would be the leading representatives during the negotiation that lay ahead. Some social time was spent on dinners, facility tours and a little golf to build the relationship between the parties. 2 The Eurocom representatives were given a clear mandate from their senior management for the initial phase of negotiation: to establish acceptable ground rules for moving forward, and to ensure that no binding commitment was made. These initial negotiations led to the drafting of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU), which outlined the broad objectives Asiatel would achieve through the partnership and outlined Eurocom’s role as a full strategic partner that would provide technical, commercial and operational support. The parties agreed on what was initially a contentious issue – the percentage of Asiatel that would be for sale to Eurocom – and also agreed to arrangements over an intended subsequent share issue by Asiatel via Initial Public Offering, another issue where the parties had contrasting initial proposals. The parties also had different approaches to the question of governance and appointments to the senior management team. Once resolved at a high level,1 the decisions on these issues were also included in the MoU. The MoU therefore dealt with a number of key and contentious issues. Although nonbinding, it provided an agreed framework for subsequent negotiation. Once concluded, the MoU was signed by one of Eurocom’s senior executives and by the Chairman/CEO of the Conglomerate. This ensured high level commitment to the process and to the sentiments expressed by the negotiation team during their discussion of the MoU. It was clearly understood that the negotiation was not simply a sale and purchase deal where the two parties would walk away feeling that they had either ‘won or were ripped off’; rather this deal required an attitude towards a ‘developing and long-term relationship’ that would need to continue beyond the closing of the initial deal. Hence bridges could not be burned permanently and mutual respect between the negotiation parties was essential to believing a long-term relationship could flourish. On the basis of its discussions, Eurocom felt confident enough to submit a bid in the tender process and was subsequently granted a one-month period of exclusive negotiation with the conglomerate to conclude an agreement. 1 For example, there was a legal requirement that the CEO be appointed by the host company (i.e. by the conglomerate), but it was also important to Eurocom to have influence over the appointment of senior positions. To overcome what was potentially a zero-sum issue (either we appoint or you do) the parties decided that a separation of management roles between the companies would make sense but that the overall management would be provided by Eurocom. This would be achieved by having a chief operating officer who would sit directly under the locally appointed chief executive officer, and would have full control of and responsibility for all of the activities of the company. The appointment of this key individual would be based on the ‘nomination’ of Eurocom and the ‘approval’ of the conglomerate. Meanwhile, the very key position of chief financial officer would remain in the hands of the conglomerate, with reciprocal approval rights to Eurocom. 3 Negotiating the framework agreement The negotiation teams consisted of five participants: a principal and a secondary representative, together with legal, financial and operational advisers. There were supporting groups behind each ‘adviser’ role; thus the project included a legal group, a financial group and an operational group. All were coordinated by the project management of the principal representative. Any significant decisions that were considered beyond the mandate of the principal representative to negotiate would be documented and ‘escalated’ for discussion between the senior management of Eurocom and the chairman/CEO of the conglomerate. Clearly, the task of the negotiation team was to keep these ‘escalation points’ to a minimum. The negotiation team would meet in a large room with up to 16 people present. Almost all the talking would be between the two principals, who would sit directly opposite each other in the centre of the table, with advisers and colleagues arrayed to each side in approximately descending order of importance (e.g. lowest level advisers/minute-takers at the ends of the table rather than in the centre). Meetings were generally set for half-day to fullday sessions, and regular breaks were taken. The negotiation teams would sometimes have lunch separately and sometimes with each other, depending on the progress of the session. If a topic looked particularly sensitive to one side or the other, a smaller group would agree to address the issue ‘at the end of the session’. Problems that required brainstorming of ideas were generally tackled by the respective teams behind closed doors. The teams would then return to the negotiation table with two or three possible solutions as well as a clear preference for one of them. Generally, the negotiating team members were briefed not to speak ‘out of turn’ nor to suggest any solutions that had not first been discussed among the negotiation team. (Brainstorming ideas in front of the other party was not encouraged, as it would often lead to suggestions that were unacceptable to the proposer’s own colleagues.) As solutions were found (which might be either through the creation of new options or by making a concession), there was positive feedback from both sides to help maintain the momentum through to an agreement. Approximately two hours of preparation was undertaken for each hour of negotiation. This meant late nights and lots of brainstorming among the team to find solutions to the conflicts that were anticipated or had previously been identified. The purpose of the negotiation was to find agreement on all the issues that would need to be part of the final legal document or, alternatively, to reach a conclusion that such an agreement would not be possible. 4 The ‘Framework Agreement’ negotiated at this stage provides a binding set of commitments from which the lawyers of the parties will draft final legal agreements. While the document is ‘binding’, it is generally only considered to ‘bind’ the negotiation team, not both companies. The deal is not really ‘closed’ until the final legal documents are signed, and plenty of ‘escape’ clauses exist for both parties up until that time. However, at each stage of the negotiations the parties became more and more committed to the final goal of formal agreement. While both negotiation teams felt that they ‘could’ walk away if they wanted to, they both also felt committed to any points that they had together placed into the Framework Agreement; these documented items became points that would not be re-discussed (except with very good reason/new information). The final price negotiations One of the final stages was to set a binding price on the transaction; this is often only possible at the conclusion of the negotiations, so that both parties can see exactly what ‘non-financial’ terms they will have to abide by after the deal. In this case, the price was set in a manner that allowed the local partner to state that he controlled a ‘US$ 1 billion’ company after the transaction; the valuation was acceptable to Eurocom, as it provided for a reasonable rate of return (after allowing for country risk) and a good strategic first step into the Asian market. The intention of the parties was for a long-term (greater than five years) relationship and the documents were drafted to reflect this. Among considerable pomp and ceremony, the transaction was closed and the funds transferred into the accounts of Asiatel. After the agreement: the next steps It was important to appoint a new management team quickly. This included creating a new full-time role in the Asian country to demonstrate to both parties that there would be close monitoring of the agreement’s implementation and that the agreement was not merely an opportunity for ‘further negotiation’. Asiatel’s position was monitored through monthly review meetings and quarterly board meetings. Such vigilance was also applied to Eurocom’s performance of its own commitments by its own negotiating team. Promises of services, staff and skills were actively tracked by the European representatives to ensure that nothing was done against the spirit of the agreements. 5 A strong emphasis was placed on trust-building and professionalism to ensure that the relationship got off to a good start. Issues that were troubling management were very quickly brought up to board level so that simmering problems did not become larger concerns. If an issue was not covered by the agreement, then the parties would follow the same ‘spirit’ as had been shown during the negotiation to find a reasonable solution. Over time, as the new venture became established, both parties were prepared to show more flexibility over the letter of the legal document, where maintaining a strict interpretation would stand in the way of a practical solution to the problem.

Accounting, It’s a research topic, based on accounting software that is Xero, XPA, Quickbooks, Translogic.

    Need a report writing, this is a practical problem that is faced by my accounting firm and the report is based upon this. I am uploading you the previous assignment on this topic, so you can get the feel of the practical problem. I have also uploaded a draft of marking schedule, so it can tell you want needs to written down. I need the weekly update on whats done so far so I could tell my tutor and proofread as it goes because the length of the assignment is too big.
Instruction:

So just a short recap on the files uploaded. The research proposal will give you the detailed outlook of the practical problem. The report writing is a short version of this possible issue. The third file will provide you with an indication on how you write this report layout formatting and marking guide, which section has to how many words.