write a 2,500 word paper that addresses the following: Du Plessis and Beaver (2008) argue that pay and conditions of work should not be standardised

THE TASK: write a 2,500 word paper that addresses the following: Du Plessis and Beaver (2008) argue that pay and conditions of work should not be standardised in multi-national companies. Critically discuss their argument and explain and justify your position on this issue. (Andries J du Plessis and Bob Beaver, (2008) The Changing Role of Human Resource Managers for International Assignments International Review of Business Research Papers, Vol.4.No.5. October-November2008 Pp.166-181) You will be expected to demonstrate that you: 1. Have a critical understanding of the role of pay and reward in relation to different types of employees/international employees including performance and motivation. 2. Have a critical understanding of the different types of reward and compensation approaches and practices. 3. Appreciate the role and implications of country and firm level differences in employment regulations and worker rights and protections, and differences in cultural values, in the development of reward and compensation practices.

Strategy M weakly dominates strategy L

some exercise of game theory!!urgent!!!!Question 1 (2 points): L M RT 2,5 2,1 0,1C 3,2 4,4 1,1B 4,0 4,1 2,2Answer the following question regarding the game above (reason all your answers):a) Strategy M weakly dominates strategy L. True or False?b) Find a mixed strategy that dominates action T.Question 2 (2 points):Find the all Nash equilibria (in pure and mixed strategies) of the following game (byrepresenting graphically the best response functions):L RT 10, 2 1, 1B 3, 3 2, 7Question 3 (3 points):Consider the following centipede game:a) Define each player strategies.b) Find the subgame perfect equilibria of this game.Game Theory CourseMaster in Economics 2015/16Universidad de GranadaTEST II:GAME THEORYHand in not later than Friday 05, 2016February 1, 2016Question 4 (2 points):Consider two firms competing for the same market. Firm 1 has been operating in the marketfor years and the technology it uses is known. Firm 2 is new in the market and it has notannounced yet the technology that it will use. Suppose that with a 40% of probability this firmwill use a new more efficient technology, instead of the old technology used by firm 1. Thetechnology that it uses is only known by firm 2. These two firms have two possibilities: Put alow price (L)E or put a high price (H). The payoffs for each of the firm are determined in thefollowing table:a) Define the states of the game and for each player the signals it may receive and thesignal functionb) Determine the best response functions for each of the players.c) Obtain the Nash equilibria of the game.Question 5 (1 points):In an infinitely repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma a version of what is known as a “tit for tat”strategy of a player I is described as follows:• There are two “statuses” that player i might be in during any period: “normal” and“revenge”;• In a normal status player i cooperates;• In a revenge status player i defects• From a normal status, player i switches to the revenge status in the next period only ifthe other player defects in this period;• From the revenge status, player i automatically switches back to the normal status inthe next period regardless of the other player’s action in this period.Notice that this tit-for-tat strategy is slightly different from the one that appears in yournotes.In the following infinitely repeated gameIf both players play Tit for Tat strategy (starting in a normal status), can (C,C) be hold as a Nashequilibrium? Justify your answer with calculus. Firm 2 (old technology) (new technology) H L H LFirm 1H 10, 10 0, 15 Firm 1 H 10, 30 5, 20L 15, 0 1, 1 L 15, 0 1, 1C DC 2,2 0,3D 3,0 1,1

A 8.70 kg box is sliding across the horizontal floor of an elevator. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the floor is 0.440.

A 8.70 kg box is sliding across the horizontal floor of an elevator. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the floor is 0.440. Determine the kinetic frictional force that acts on the box for each of the following cases.(a) The elevator is stationary. N(b) The elevator is accelerating upward with an acceleration whose magnitude is 2.70 m/s2. N(c) The elevator is accelerating downward with an acceleration whose magnitude is 2.70 m/s2. N

Mitigated Through Behaviorist Approaches?A classic example of bullying is a scenario in which a much larger, stronger bully physically intimidates and harasses

Discussion: Can Bullying Be Mitigated Through Behaviorist Approaches?A classic example of bullying is a scenario in which a much larger, stronger bully physically intimidates and harasses a smaller, weaker victim to steal the victim’s lunch money. You might think that the obvious solution to the bullying in this example is to punish the bully to prevent the behavior from reoccurring. It would be nice if the solution were that simple, but it often is not. The bully may receive gains from the behavior (positive reinforcement; e.g., money to buy more food at lunch or respect from peers) that outweigh the punishment. Furthermore, if the bullying has occurred over a length of time with the same victim, the victim may also develop a conditioned response. For example, suppose that the school bell signaling that it is lunch time rings just before the bully approaches the victim for his lunch money. Initially the bell is a neutral stimulus that produces no specific response. Over time, the victim may associate the bell with the fear response of being bullied, such that the bell alone triggers a fear response in the potential victim. Now the bell is a conditioned stimulus because it elicits a conditioned response. Classical and operant conditioning can be used to understand why bullying occurs, as illustrated in the previous example, and to design effective interventions to reduce bullying behavior. In this discussion, you will use classical or operant conditioning to propose a strategy to mitigate bullying.
To Prepare: Review this week’s Learning Resources on the behaviorist perspective and classical and operant conditioning.Pay particular attention to the meaning of the terms in each type of conditioning. Classical conditioning terms include: UCS (unconditioned stimulus), UCR (unconditioned response), NS (neutral stimulus), CS (conditioned stimulus), CR (conditioned response). Operant conditioning terms include positive reinforcers, and negative reinforcers, and punishers.Select one conditioning approach and use it to propose a strategy to mitigate bullying.Operationalize the characteristics of your strategy. For example, if you selected the classical approach, identify which aspects of your strategy represent the UCS, UCR, NS, CS, and CR.  If you selected the operant approach, identify which aspects (or operants) of your strategy represent positive reinforcers, negative reinforcers, and/or punishers.
By Day 4Post a response to the following: Describe the conditioning approach you selected. Explain how you used this approach to identify a strategy to mitigate bullying. Following your mitigation strategy, operationalize the characteristics of your strategy according to the conditioning method you chose, such as UCS, UCR, NS, CS, CR for classical conditioning; and positive reinforcers, negative reinforcers, punishers for operant conditioning.

Biology Today and Tomorrow (pages attached) highlights three main characteristics of living organisms.

Properties of Life
Chapter 1 of Biology Today and Tomorrow (pages attached) highlights three main characteristics of living organisms. From the list below, select TWO items that you consider to be alive, and two others that you do not consider to be alive. Apply the properties of living organisms from the textbook to justify your classification for each of the items you selected.
Choose From:
·  Tulip
·  Mushroom
·  You
·  Virus
·  Rock
·  Car
·  Copy machine
·  Polar bear
·  Pencil
·  Computer
Assignment should be 500 words in length and APA style, 12 pt, double spaced, times new roman.

Select one of the industry sectors from the list. Describe two industry-specific cloud computing trends that will enable organizations operating in that sector to gain a competitive advantage if implemented.

Select one of the industry sectors from the list. Describe two industry-specific cloud computing trends that will enable organizations operating in that sector to gain a competitive advantage if implemented.
Healthcare
Manufacturing
Transportation
Retail
Education
Financial Services

ACCESS TO TECHNOLOGICAL opportunities is becoming increasingly easy

114  Harvard Business Review October 2011
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ACCESS TO TECHNOLOGICAL opportunities is becoming
increasingly easy. Thanks to the collaboration the internet has made possible and the open innovation it
has spurred, we live in a world where ideas and solutions are abundant. The main challenge facing innovation managers today is how to take advantage of
this wealth of opportunities. Being fi rst to launch a
new technology is less important than being fi rst to
envision its greatest untapped market potential.
Well-known examples of companies that did
the latter include Nintendo, Apple, and Swatch. All
three have used technology to radically change the
meaning of off erings in a category—why customers
buy or how they use a product. Nintendo’s clever
application of MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical
systems) accelerometers transformed the experience of playing with game consoles from passive
immersion in a virtual world into active physical
entertainment. Apple’s creation of the iPod and the
iTunes Store made it easier for people to discover
and buy new music and organize it into personal
playlists, and provided a solution to the piracy
that was threatening to destroy the music industry. And Swatch used inexpensive quartz technology to change watches from timekeeping tools
into affordable fashion accessories. These companies weren’t necessarily the fi rst to introduce a
new technology in the product category (the iPod
Roberto Verganti is a professor of the management
of innovation at Politecnico
di Milano and the author of
Design-Driven Innovation
(Harvard Business Press,
2009).
How companies can
systematically create
innovations that customers
don’t even know they want
by Roberto Verganti
PHOTOGRAPHY: ELIE HONEIN
HBR.ORG
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needs, as conventional innovation processes do,
Philips focused on developing a brand-new vision of
the user experience. To do this, it assembled experts
from a range of far-fl ung fi elds to interpret how the
technologies might be employed, synthesized their
interpretations into ideas for products, and created
prototypes that could be tested with customers or
users. Hospitals and patients hadn’t asked for AEH,
but once they experienced it, they loved it.
Philips’s Search for Epiphanies
When exposed to new or emerging technologies,
most companies focus on a narrow innovation strategy: technology substitution. The question they ask
is, “Can we substitute this for an old technology to
better address customers’ existing needs?” But companies that pursue technology epiphanies ask, “Will
this new technology enable us to create products
and services that people fi nd more meaningful than
current off erings? Will it transcend existing needs
and give customers a completely new reason to buy
a product?”
Philips started to produce technology epiphanies
in the early 1990s and has invested systematically
in this strategy since 2001, when its leaders decided
that the company was nowhere close to capturing
the potential value of the abundant technology being developed internally or brought in from outside.
They challenged Philips Design, which supported
the company’s technology- development groups and
businesses, to address this shortcoming. Philips Design has conducted more than 20 projects to explore
how emerging technologies could be used to create
new products in the consumer electronics, lighting,
and health care markets. One result is Ambient Experience for Healthcare. “Ambient Experience has
strengthened Philips’s €3.27 billion [$4.63 billion]
imaging business around the world, allowed it to
realize higher prices, and improved its profi tability,”
says Thomas van Elzakker, the general manager for
new ventures who heads the operation.
Since the introduction of CT, in the early 1970s,
and MRI, in the early 1980s, radiologists have been
demanding ever more powerful machines to improve the quality of images and reduce the time and
cost of examinations. Consequently, innovation in
the imaging industry has focused mainly on technology substitutions: more-sophisticated devices that
can capture more data in less time. In the 10 years
before AEH was introduced, the number of images
that a CT scanner could capture with each rotation of
was released in 2001, four years after the fi rst MP3
player), but they unveiled its most meaningful and
profi table form.
I call the strategies that led to these products
technology epiphanies. An epiphany—“a perception
of the essential nature or meaning of something”—
is commonly thought of as a sudden revelation that
comes to a lone creative genius in an intuitive fashion. But I propose that technology epiphanies do not
have to be the result of rare eureka moments; they
can be systematically produced by either the suppliers of new technologies or the companies that
incorporate them in their offerings. I will demonstrate how by focusing on one best-practice company, Philips Electronics, which developed Ambient
Experience for Healthcare, a breakthrough application for reducing the anxiety that patients often
experience when they undergo medical scans with
computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI), and other machines. Instead of assessing technologies in light of customers’ existing
The Power of Technology Epiphanies
Before the launch of the highly successful Nintendo Wii, the prevailing
meaning of the video-game experience was passive immersion in a
virtual world. Nintendo realized that
by allowing the console to sense the
speed and orientation of the controller, a new technology—MEMs accelerators—could turn video games
into active physical entertainment
in the real world.
Casio and other watch manufacturers used low-cost quartz technology together with LED and LCD
displays to replace mechanical
movements and create inexpensive, highly accurate timekeeping
devices. But Swatch realized that
the new technologies could be used
to create highly accurate watches
that were also aff ordable fashion
accessories.
A technology epiphany leads to a radical change in the meaning of the experience customers have when they use an off ering. Below are two examples.
OLD MEANING NEW MEANING OLD MEANING NEW MEANING
PHOTOGRAPHY: GETTY IMAGES, GETTY IMAGES, VEER, ASSOCIATED PRESS
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the X-ray tube had increased sixteenfold, and the rotation speed had doubled (improving the machine’s
ability to compensate for patients’ movements). Although Philips was at the forefront in improving performance, in 2002 its leaders saw that the company’s
edge in diff erentiating its products in this manner
was rapidly shrinking. With AEH, Philips found a
new way to serve the market.
Anxiety makes it hard for patients to lie still inside scanning devices, but movement affects the
quality of the images produced. The usual practice
is to sedate anxious patients, especially children,
but that increases the risks of the procedure and the
time it takes.
AEH creates a more relaxing atmosphere for patients by using several technologies, including LED
displays, video animation, RFID (radio-frequency
identifi cation) sensors, and sound-control systems.
For example, when a child approaches the examination area, she chooses a theme, such as “aquatic” or
“nature.” She is then given a puppet containing an
RFID sensor, which automatically launches themerelated animation, lighting, and audio when she enters the examination room. The theme can also be
used to teach the child to stay still during the exam:
In the preparation room, a nurse may show a video
of a character on the sea and ask the child to hold her
breath when the character dives underwater to seize
a treasure. Projecting the same sequence during the
exam helps the child hold her breath and lie still at
the right moment.
This approach has generated signifi cant benefi ts
beyond improving patients’ experience. For example, it has cut the time required to conduct CT scans
by 15% to 20%; reduced the number of children under the age of three who need to be sedated for a CT
scan by 30% to 40%; and slashed the amount of radiation they receive by 25% to 50%.
Meaning First, Technology Second
Technology epiphanies gave rise to AEH: This was
the fi rst time anyone had considered that equipment
manufacturers, and not just hospitals, could do
something to alleviate patients’ anxiety—that there
might be an alternative to the risky, time- consuming,
and costly practice of sedating patients. It was also
the fi rst time anyone had seen that patients’ level
of stress is deeply affected by the environment in
which their experience occurs, and that the experience includes not just the scan but also what happens before and after it.
After Philips had these epiphanies, the untapped
potential of ambient technologies in health care became apparent. Philips articulated its insights fi rst
and then used them as a lens through which to assess the value of the technologies.
How can your organization produce technology
epiphanies? Normally, fi rms investigate customers’
needs by asking them what they want or closely
scrutinizing them as they use a product. Although
such endeavors are highly eff ective for improving
existing products, they rarely lead to brand-new
ones, especially if users are unfamiliar with the
Idea in Brief
In conventional product
development, companies
look for new technologies that will better serve
the existing needs of their
customers.
But if they want to create breakthrough products, they should seek to
understand how those
technologies could be
used to address needs
that customers may not
realize they have.
To come up with these
technology epiphanies,
companies should turn
to interpreters—experts
from far-fl ung fi elds with
a novel perspective on
users—rather than to the
users themselves.
HBR.ORG
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technology in question. Indeed, patients who had
to undergo scans were worried about the pain of a
sedative injection; they would not have imagined
that projecting animations might make the injection
unnecessary. And radiologists had never considered
how changing the hospital’s ambience might improve clinical performance.
For this reason, Philips Design focuses on new visions that technology could make possible and that
could become more meaningful to users than existing products. The fi rst step in coming up with those
visions is to find interpreters—experts who have
studied the same users of your product, in the same
context, but from diff erent perspectives. They may
be organizational insiders or outsiders—scholars, researchers, designers, or people from other industries
or from suppliers of complementary technologies.
Starting in the early 1990s, Stefano Marzano, then
the CEO of Philips Design and now the chief design
offi cer at Philips, assembled and nurtured a unique
team of young insiders with expertise in interaction
design, architecture, interior design, sociology, and
anthropology. In the years before the creation of
AEH, the team conducted research on how people
experience the environment in which they live and
how emerging ambient technologies might give rise
to new experiences.
One project, called Noah’s Ark, explored the overall experience of going to bed, sleeping, and waking
up. It led to an experiment involving an interactive
system that allowed subjects to project clouds, poems, and other images on their bedroom ceilings to
enhance rest, intimacy, imagination, or play.
Another project, called Pogo, whose members
included experts in pedagogy and literature from
the University of Siena and the University of Liège,
explored the potential of media technologies, RFIDs,
and video projection to educate children through
storytelling. Insights from these projects led the
Philips Design team to incorporate video in AEH.
Kenneth Gorfi nkle was an important outside interpreter in the AEH project. A clinical psychologist
at New York Presbyterian Hospital and Children’s
Hospital, Gorfi nkle is an expert on how pain aff ects
children during treatment. When the Philips Design
team visited him at the hospital, he took the members on a tour of its examination areas. Rather than
BELOW LEFT
AEH’s “kitten scanner”
helps children overcome
their fear of the real
machine. RIGHT
Animated projections in
the examination room
calm their anxiety.
Technology Epiphanies in Action
Creating Kid-Friendly Medical Environments
PHOTOGRAPHY: COURTESY OF PHILIPS
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focusing on the devices and instruments, he discussed the impact of the hospital environment on
children’s stress. He told the team about a study in
which children interviewed even four years after
their exams said that the injection of the sedative
had been the most frightening part of the experience.
Sedation typically occurred in a small dedicated
space. Gorfi nkle suggested that the space be made as
relaxing as possible and that the examination end in
a diff erent room so that the child’s last memory of it
would not be associated with the injection.
Sachin Behere, a design consultant at Philips
Design, was an important internal interpreter. An architect who had studied design and environmental
analysis at Cornell University and the Indian Institute of Technology in Mumbai, he had held jobs at
architectural and facility-planning companies and,
after joining Philips, had worked on hospital projects
in the Middle East. He provided signifi cant insights
into how the layout of rooms could help to relax
patients and staff members and improve workfl ow
effi ciency.
The sidebar “Finding the Right Interpreters” offers questions that can help companies find their
own Gorfi nkles and Beheres. An important step is
to identify the fi elds in which to search. Some of the
interpreters involved in the project that led to AEH
were the kinds of people one would expect to see in
an imaging-devices initiative: doctors, hospital managers, engineers of medical equipment, and marketing experts. Others, however, came from unusual
domains: architecture, psychology, contemporary
interior design, LED technology and video projection, interaction design (typically used in industries
that provide software-based services), and interactive hardware and software.
To identify unusual but appropriate domains,
fi rst broaden the scope of your analysis to include
the user’s whole experience. Instead of focusing
solely on what happens to a patient during a CT or
an MRI, Philips also considered the patient’s experience before and after the scan: entering the hospital,
finding the right department, waiting, going into
the changing room, entering the examination area,
returning to the changing room, and arranging the
next appointment.
Then look for factors related to that experience
that your organization normally wouldn’t think
about during product development and consult
experts on those factors. For Philips’s scanners
business, the experts included child psychologists,
architects who design hospitals, and interior designers of hospital rooms and furniture. Significantly,
Philips did not crowdsource. It wanted interpretations, not ideas, and it realized that thousands of interpretations would only create noise. So it carefully
searched for a few people who could provide an unusual but solid interpretation of a complex scenario.
To identify such experts, seek out people who
have conducted research on users’ experiences and
have come up with interpretations that challenge
the dominant assumptions. Consider Gorfinkle.
Through years of study as a clinical professor of psychology, he has developed deep and unique knowledge about how pain affects children. In his book
Soothing Your Child’s Pain, he explains how diff erent
techniques—including parents’ telling stories—can
help children relax. Insights from his studies contributed to the inclusion in AEH of projected animations
and a scaled-down version of a CT scanner that children can use in the waiting room to scan the puppets
they’ve been given. This “kitten scanner” both familiarizes children with the machine so that the real
Finding the Right Interpreters
Users are often helpful in understanding existing
meanings but rarely so in envisioning new ones.
Companies searching for technology epiphanies
should turn to interpreters—experts who study
the same users of a product in the same context,
but from diff erent perspectives. Interpreters
may come from inside or outside your organization. Answering these questions can help you
fi nd them.
LOOK AT THE
WHOLE USER
EXPERIENCE
What is your users’
experience before,
during, and after your
product is engaged
with?
SEARCH OUTSIDE
YOUR NETWORK
What unusual domains
(fi elds with which
your business doesn’t
normally interact) also
concern themselves
with your users’ whole
experience?
FIND THE
FORWARD-LOOKING
RESEARCHERS
Who are the people
in each domain doing research on that
experience?
Who among them
would your competitors
overlook?
Who are the emerging researchers who
are exploring new
perspectives?
Can your chosen interpreters suggest other
interpreters?
HBR.ORG
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thing will be less frightening and helps them learn
the importance of lying still during a scan: They can
see that if they shake the toy while scanning it, the
image is distorted.
Once an expert has proved helpful, ask him or
her to suggest other people or organizations you
might recruit. Gorfi nkle recommended that Philips
approach the Child Life Council, a nonprofi t organization that promotes medical procedures to reduce
stress and trauma. The council suggested ways in
which the hospital environment could facilitate
positive interactions among patients, staff members,
and relatives.
Your experts needn’t be the most famous people
in their fi elds. Sometimes a talented team of young
and forward-looking researchers can be more eff ective. Indeed, eminent experts who are the source of
dominant assumptions may be less likely than upand-comers to challenge those assumptions. In addition, if experts are well known, your competitors
are also likely to tap them.
Putting It All Together
An effective technique for eliciting the insights of
interpreters is to observe with them as users go
through an experience; this allows the interpreters
to point out behaviors that neither you nor the users
could see and articulate on your own.
Philips conducted workshops it called Future
Landscapes, in which a number of interpreters discussed how health care experiences were changing
and brainstormed about enabling new experiences
through technology; their conclusions were used to
redesign the user experience. Toward this end, the
team at Philips Design created an “experience fl ow
poster”: a detailed map of the various steps in the experience of patients, their relatives, and the clinical
staff before, during, and after an examination. Each
stage was depicted in three layers: the people layer,
which described how every step of the experience
could be improved, according to the interpreters’
insights; the context layer, which described how the
environment should be redesigned to create a new
experience; and the enablers layer, which described
how ambient technologies or other solutions could
achieve the redesign.
Consider the step preceding an examination:
The people layer captured the interpreters’ idea
that fictional stories could be used to explain the
coming procedure to a child. This led to a redesign
of the experience (captured in the context layer) to
include video animation and the kitten scanner. The
enablers layer captured the technologies—video projectors, animation applications, RFIDs in puppets—
that would enable this new experience.
Finally, Philips built a full-scale prototype of the
entire AEH system. Such a prototype allows potential customers, partners, and company insiders to experience the radical shift in a product experience for
themselves. Indeed, only after a prototype of AEH
was presented at the 2003 annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, in Chicago, did
customers start to see the system’s potential. Their
positive reaction helped win support for the project
from Philips executives in the health care division
who had not been fully onboard.
The fi rst AEH suite opened in 2004 at Advocate
Lutheran General Children’s Hospital, in Park Ridge,
Illinois, a Chicago suburb. Today more than 260 hospitals around the world have suites. And AEH has
allowed Philips to expand its health care business
into areas that it could not have served as a supplier
of scanners. For example, in 2009 an AEH suite that
did not include Philips scanning equipment was installed in the emergency department at Florida Hospital for Children.
IN MARKETS where everyone can easily gain access
to new technologies, the big winners often are not
the companies that obtain them fi rst and use them
to enhance existing products. They are the companies that understand how those technologies can be
used to create better customer experiences than existing applications do. And the biggest winners will
be companies that learn to systematically produce
one technology epiphany after another.
HBR Reprint R1110H
120  Harvard Business Review October 2011
DESIGNING BREAKTHROUGH PRODUCTS HBR.ORG
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ACCESS TO TECHNOLOGICAL opportunities is becoming increasingly easy

114  Harvard Business Review October 2011
1320 Oct11 Verganti Layout [S].indd 114 320 Oct11 Verganti Layout [S].indd 114 9/2/11 2:48 PM /2/11 2:48 PM
ACCESS TO TECHNOLOGICAL opportunities is becoming
increasingly easy. Thanks to the collaboration the internet has made possible and the open innovation it
has spurred, we live in a world where ideas and solutions are abundant. The main challenge facing innovation managers today is how to take advantage of
this wealth of opportunities. Being fi rst to launch a
new technology is less important than being fi rst to
envision its greatest untapped market potential.
Well-known examples of companies that did
the latter include Nintendo, Apple, and Swatch. All
three have used technology to radically change the
meaning of off erings in a category—why customers
buy or how they use a product. Nintendo’s clever
application of MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical
systems) accelerometers transformed the experience of playing with game consoles from passive
immersion in a virtual world into active physical
entertainment. Apple’s creation of the iPod and the
iTunes Store made it easier for people to discover
and buy new music and organize it into personal
playlists, and provided a solution to the piracy
that was threatening to destroy the music industry. And Swatch used inexpensive quartz technology to change watches from timekeeping tools
into affordable fashion accessories. These companies weren’t necessarily the fi rst to introduce a
new technology in the product category (the iPod
Roberto Verganti is a professor of the management
of innovation at Politecnico
di Milano and the author of
Design-Driven Innovation
(Harvard Business Press,
2009).
How companies can
systematically create
innovations that customers
don’t even know they want
by Roberto Verganti
PHOTOGRAPHY: ELIE HONEIN
HBR.ORG
October 2011 Harvard Business Review 115
1320 Oct11 Verganti Layout [S].indd 115 320 Oct11 Verganti Layout [S].indd 115 9/2/11 2:48 PM /2/11 2:48 PM
needs, as conventional innovation processes do,
Philips focused on developing a brand-new vision of
the user experience. To do this, it assembled experts
from a range of far-fl ung fi elds to interpret how the
technologies might be employed, synthesized their
interpretations into ideas for products, and created
prototypes that could be tested with customers or
users. Hospitals and patients hadn’t asked for AEH,
but once they experienced it, they loved it.
Philips’s Search for Epiphanies
When exposed to new or emerging technologies,
most companies focus on a narrow innovation strategy: technology substitution. The question they ask
is, “Can we substitute this for an old technology to
better address customers’ existing needs?” But companies that pursue technology epiphanies ask, “Will
this new technology enable us to create products
and services that people fi nd more meaningful than
current off erings? Will it transcend existing needs
and give customers a completely new reason to buy
a product?”
Philips started to produce technology epiphanies
in the early 1990s and has invested systematically
in this strategy since 2001, when its leaders decided
that the company was nowhere close to capturing
the potential value of the abundant technology being developed internally or brought in from outside.
They challenged Philips Design, which supported
the company’s technology- development groups and
businesses, to address this shortcoming. Philips Design has conducted more than 20 projects to explore
how emerging technologies could be used to create
new products in the consumer electronics, lighting,
and health care markets. One result is Ambient Experience for Healthcare. “Ambient Experience has
strengthened Philips’s €3.27 billion [$4.63 billion]
imaging business around the world, allowed it to
realize higher prices, and improved its profi tability,”
says Thomas van Elzakker, the general manager for
new ventures who heads the operation.
Since the introduction of CT, in the early 1970s,
and MRI, in the early 1980s, radiologists have been
demanding ever more powerful machines to improve the quality of images and reduce the time and
cost of examinations. Consequently, innovation in
the imaging industry has focused mainly on technology substitutions: more-sophisticated devices that
can capture more data in less time. In the 10 years
before AEH was introduced, the number of images
that a CT scanner could capture with each rotation of
was released in 2001, four years after the fi rst MP3
player), but they unveiled its most meaningful and
profi table form.
I call the strategies that led to these products
technology epiphanies. An epiphany—“a perception
of the essential nature or meaning of something”—
is commonly thought of as a sudden revelation that
comes to a lone creative genius in an intuitive fashion. But I propose that technology epiphanies do not
have to be the result of rare eureka moments; they
can be systematically produced by either the suppliers of new technologies or the companies that
incorporate them in their offerings. I will demonstrate how by focusing on one best-practice company, Philips Electronics, which developed Ambient
Experience for Healthcare, a breakthrough application for reducing the anxiety that patients often
experience when they undergo medical scans with
computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI), and other machines. Instead of assessing technologies in light of customers’ existing
The Power of Technology Epiphanies
Before the launch of the highly successful Nintendo Wii, the prevailing
meaning of the video-game experience was passive immersion in a
virtual world. Nintendo realized that
by allowing the console to sense the
speed and orientation of the controller, a new technology—MEMs accelerators—could turn video games
into active physical entertainment
in the real world.
Casio and other watch manufacturers used low-cost quartz technology together with LED and LCD
displays to replace mechanical
movements and create inexpensive, highly accurate timekeeping
devices. But Swatch realized that
the new technologies could be used
to create highly accurate watches
that were also aff ordable fashion
accessories.
A technology epiphany leads to a radical change in the meaning of the experience customers have when they use an off ering. Below are two examples.
OLD MEANING NEW MEANING OLD MEANING NEW MEANING
PHOTOGRAPHY: GETTY IMAGES, GETTY IMAGES, VEER, ASSOCIATED PRESS
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the X-ray tube had increased sixteenfold, and the rotation speed had doubled (improving the machine’s
ability to compensate for patients’ movements). Although Philips was at the forefront in improving performance, in 2002 its leaders saw that the company’s
edge in diff erentiating its products in this manner
was rapidly shrinking. With AEH, Philips found a
new way to serve the market.
Anxiety makes it hard for patients to lie still inside scanning devices, but movement affects the
quality of the images produced. The usual practice
is to sedate anxious patients, especially children,
but that increases the risks of the procedure and the
time it takes.
AEH creates a more relaxing atmosphere for patients by using several technologies, including LED
displays, video animation, RFID (radio-frequency
identifi cation) sensors, and sound-control systems.
For example, when a child approaches the examination area, she chooses a theme, such as “aquatic” or
“nature.” She is then given a puppet containing an
RFID sensor, which automatically launches themerelated animation, lighting, and audio when she enters the examination room. The theme can also be
used to teach the child to stay still during the exam:
In the preparation room, a nurse may show a video
of a character on the sea and ask the child to hold her
breath when the character dives underwater to seize
a treasure. Projecting the same sequence during the
exam helps the child hold her breath and lie still at
the right moment.
This approach has generated signifi cant benefi ts
beyond improving patients’ experience. For example, it has cut the time required to conduct CT scans
by 15% to 20%; reduced the number of children under the age of three who need to be sedated for a CT
scan by 30% to 40%; and slashed the amount of radiation they receive by 25% to 50%.
Meaning First, Technology Second
Technology epiphanies gave rise to AEH: This was
the fi rst time anyone had considered that equipment
manufacturers, and not just hospitals, could do
something to alleviate patients’ anxiety—that there
might be an alternative to the risky, time- consuming,
and costly practice of sedating patients. It was also
the fi rst time anyone had seen that patients’ level
of stress is deeply affected by the environment in
which their experience occurs, and that the experience includes not just the scan but also what happens before and after it.
After Philips had these epiphanies, the untapped
potential of ambient technologies in health care became apparent. Philips articulated its insights fi rst
and then used them as a lens through which to assess the value of the technologies.
How can your organization produce technology
epiphanies? Normally, fi rms investigate customers’
needs by asking them what they want or closely
scrutinizing them as they use a product. Although
such endeavors are highly eff ective for improving
existing products, they rarely lead to brand-new
ones, especially if users are unfamiliar with the
Idea in Brief
In conventional product
development, companies
look for new technologies that will better serve
the existing needs of their
customers.
But if they want to create breakthrough products, they should seek to
understand how those
technologies could be
used to address needs
that customers may not
realize they have.
To come up with these
technology epiphanies,
companies should turn
to interpreters—experts
from far-fl ung fi elds with
a novel perspective on
users—rather than to the
users themselves.
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technology in question. Indeed, patients who had
to undergo scans were worried about the pain of a
sedative injection; they would not have imagined
that projecting animations might make the injection
unnecessary. And radiologists had never considered
how changing the hospital’s ambience might improve clinical performance.
For this reason, Philips Design focuses on new visions that technology could make possible and that
could become more meaningful to users than existing products. The fi rst step in coming up with those
visions is to find interpreters—experts who have
studied the same users of your product, in the same
context, but from diff erent perspectives. They may
be organizational insiders or outsiders—scholars, researchers, designers, or people from other industries
or from suppliers of complementary technologies.
Starting in the early 1990s, Stefano Marzano, then
the CEO of Philips Design and now the chief design
offi cer at Philips, assembled and nurtured a unique
team of young insiders with expertise in interaction
design, architecture, interior design, sociology, and
anthropology. In the years before the creation of
AEH, the team conducted research on how people
experience the environment in which they live and
how emerging ambient technologies might give rise
to new experiences.
One project, called Noah’s Ark, explored the overall experience of going to bed, sleeping, and waking
up. It led to an experiment involving an interactive
system that allowed subjects to project clouds, poems, and other images on their bedroom ceilings to
enhance rest, intimacy, imagination, or play.
Another project, called Pogo, whose members
included experts in pedagogy and literature from
the University of Siena and the University of Liège,
explored the potential of media technologies, RFIDs,
and video projection to educate children through
storytelling. Insights from these projects led the
Philips Design team to incorporate video in AEH.
Kenneth Gorfi nkle was an important outside interpreter in the AEH project. A clinical psychologist
at New York Presbyterian Hospital and Children’s
Hospital, Gorfi nkle is an expert on how pain aff ects
children during treatment. When the Philips Design
team visited him at the hospital, he took the members on a tour of its examination areas. Rather than
BELOW LEFT
AEH’s “kitten scanner”
helps children overcome
their fear of the real
machine. RIGHT
Animated projections in
the examination room
calm their anxiety.
Technology Epiphanies in Action
Creating Kid-Friendly Medical Environments
PHOTOGRAPHY: COURTESY OF PHILIPS
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focusing on the devices and instruments, he discussed the impact of the hospital environment on
children’s stress. He told the team about a study in
which children interviewed even four years after
their exams said that the injection of the sedative
had been the most frightening part of the experience.
Sedation typically occurred in a small dedicated
space. Gorfi nkle suggested that the space be made as
relaxing as possible and that the examination end in
a diff erent room so that the child’s last memory of it
would not be associated with the injection.
Sachin Behere, a design consultant at Philips
Design, was an important internal interpreter. An architect who had studied design and environmental
analysis at Cornell University and the Indian Institute of Technology in Mumbai, he had held jobs at
architectural and facility-planning companies and,
after joining Philips, had worked on hospital projects
in the Middle East. He provided signifi cant insights
into how the layout of rooms could help to relax
patients and staff members and improve workfl ow
effi ciency.
The sidebar “Finding the Right Interpreters” offers questions that can help companies find their
own Gorfi nkles and Beheres. An important step is
to identify the fi elds in which to search. Some of the
interpreters involved in the project that led to AEH
were the kinds of people one would expect to see in
an imaging-devices initiative: doctors, hospital managers, engineers of medical equipment, and marketing experts. Others, however, came from unusual
domains: architecture, psychology, contemporary
interior design, LED technology and video projection, interaction design (typically used in industries
that provide software-based services), and interactive hardware and software.
To identify unusual but appropriate domains,
fi rst broaden the scope of your analysis to include
the user’s whole experience. Instead of focusing
solely on what happens to a patient during a CT or
an MRI, Philips also considered the patient’s experience before and after the scan: entering the hospital,
finding the right department, waiting, going into
the changing room, entering the examination area,
returning to the changing room, and arranging the
next appointment.
Then look for factors related to that experience
that your organization normally wouldn’t think
about during product development and consult
experts on those factors. For Philips’s scanners
business, the experts included child psychologists,
architects who design hospitals, and interior designers of hospital rooms and furniture. Significantly,
Philips did not crowdsource. It wanted interpretations, not ideas, and it realized that thousands of interpretations would only create noise. So it carefully
searched for a few people who could provide an unusual but solid interpretation of a complex scenario.
To identify such experts, seek out people who
have conducted research on users’ experiences and
have come up with interpretations that challenge
the dominant assumptions. Consider Gorfinkle.
Through years of study as a clinical professor of psychology, he has developed deep and unique knowledge about how pain affects children. In his book
Soothing Your Child’s Pain, he explains how diff erent
techniques—including parents’ telling stories—can
help children relax. Insights from his studies contributed to the inclusion in AEH of projected animations
and a scaled-down version of a CT scanner that children can use in the waiting room to scan the puppets
they’ve been given. This “kitten scanner” both familiarizes children with the machine so that the real
Finding the Right Interpreters
Users are often helpful in understanding existing
meanings but rarely so in envisioning new ones.
Companies searching for technology epiphanies
should turn to interpreters—experts who study
the same users of a product in the same context,
but from diff erent perspectives. Interpreters
may come from inside or outside your organization. Answering these questions can help you
fi nd them.
LOOK AT THE
WHOLE USER
EXPERIENCE
What is your users’
experience before,
during, and after your
product is engaged
with?
SEARCH OUTSIDE
YOUR NETWORK
What unusual domains
(fi elds with which
your business doesn’t
normally interact) also
concern themselves
with your users’ whole
experience?
FIND THE
FORWARD-LOOKING
RESEARCHERS
Who are the people
in each domain doing research on that
experience?
Who among them
would your competitors
overlook?
Who are the emerging researchers who
are exploring new
perspectives?
Can your chosen interpreters suggest other
interpreters?
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thing will be less frightening and helps them learn
the importance of lying still during a scan: They can
see that if they shake the toy while scanning it, the
image is distorted.
Once an expert has proved helpful, ask him or
her to suggest other people or organizations you
might recruit. Gorfi nkle recommended that Philips
approach the Child Life Council, a nonprofi t organization that promotes medical procedures to reduce
stress and trauma. The council suggested ways in
which the hospital environment could facilitate
positive interactions among patients, staff members,
and relatives.
Your experts needn’t be the most famous people
in their fi elds. Sometimes a talented team of young
and forward-looking researchers can be more eff ective. Indeed, eminent experts who are the source of
dominant assumptions may be less likely than upand-comers to challenge those assumptions. In addition, if experts are well known, your competitors
are also likely to tap them.
Putting It All Together
An effective technique for eliciting the insights of
interpreters is to observe with them as users go
through an experience; this allows the interpreters
to point out behaviors that neither you nor the users
could see and articulate on your own.
Philips conducted workshops it called Future
Landscapes, in which a number of interpreters discussed how health care experiences were changing
and brainstormed about enabling new experiences
through technology; their conclusions were used to
redesign the user experience. Toward this end, the
team at Philips Design created an “experience fl ow
poster”: a detailed map of the various steps in the experience of patients, their relatives, and the clinical
staff before, during, and after an examination. Each
stage was depicted in three layers: the people layer,
which described how every step of the experience
could be improved, according to the interpreters’
insights; the context layer, which described how the
environment should be redesigned to create a new
experience; and the enablers layer, which described
how ambient technologies or other solutions could
achieve the redesign.
Consider the step preceding an examination:
The people layer captured the interpreters’ idea
that fictional stories could be used to explain the
coming procedure to a child. This led to a redesign
of the experience (captured in the context layer) to
include video animation and the kitten scanner. The
enablers layer captured the technologies—video projectors, animation applications, RFIDs in puppets—
that would enable this new experience.
Finally, Philips built a full-scale prototype of the
entire AEH system. Such a prototype allows potential customers, partners, and company insiders to experience the radical shift in a product experience for
themselves. Indeed, only after a prototype of AEH
was presented at the 2003 annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, in Chicago, did
customers start to see the system’s potential. Their
positive reaction helped win support for the project
from Philips executives in the health care division
who had not been fully onboard.
The fi rst AEH suite opened in 2004 at Advocate
Lutheran General Children’s Hospital, in Park Ridge,
Illinois, a Chicago suburb. Today more than 260 hospitals around the world have suites. And AEH has
allowed Philips to expand its health care business
into areas that it could not have served as a supplier
of scanners. For example, in 2009 an AEH suite that
did not include Philips scanning equipment was installed in the emergency department at Florida Hospital for Children.
IN MARKETS where everyone can easily gain access
to new technologies, the big winners often are not
the companies that obtain them fi rst and use them
to enhance existing products. They are the companies that understand how those technologies can be
used to create better customer experiences than existing applications do. And the biggest winners will
be companies that learn to systematically produce
one technology epiphany after another.
HBR Reprint R1110H
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Nursing Excellence and Competencies

Title/Subject
Nursing Excellence and Competencies
Type of Service
Course Work
Urgency
3 hours

Citation Style APA Style

No. of Pages/Wordcount
2 page(s)550 Words
No. of Sources/References
3
English UK/US/AU?
English US

Description
Within the Discussion Board area, write 500 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments.
 This will be the foundation for future discussions by your classmates. 

You are required to use 2 scholarly resources, in addition to your textbook. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas.

Many hospitals have achieved Magnet Recognition® through the adoption of standards to recognize nursing excellence in the organization. The American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) accredits these organizations and has identified 5 model components and forces of magnetism. They contain the following (ANCC, n.d.a):

Transformational leadership
Structural empowerment
Exemplary professional practice
New knowledge, innovation, and improvements
Empirical quality results

The 14 Forces of Magnetism correlate with the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) competencies and the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies. These forces are as follows (ANCC, n.d.b):

Quality of nursing leadership
Organizational structure
Management style
Personnel policies and programs
Professional models of care
Quality of care
Quality improvement
Consultation and resources
Autonomy
Community and health care organization
Nurses as teachers
Image of nursing
Interdisciplinary relationships
Professional development
Complete the following for this assignment:

Identify 3 of these forces of magnetism, and discuss why these 3 are the most important forces or characteristics that optimize system effectiveness in your organization and your individual performance within an organization