By Wednesday at 11:55pm Eastern Time please post a 300-word minimum length “Init

By Wednesday at 11:55pm Eastern Time please post a 300-word minimum length “Initial Post” in response to the topic requirements on each forum during its scheduled week.
As we have begun our examination of the psychology of disaster, an indisputable reality is that disaster can be found in many forms and affect all communities. In our course text and other materials, the distinction between natural and man-made disasters has been made, providing many examples, both modern and historical, of the types and effects of disasters on humankind overtime.

After reviewing the course materials for the week, including the examples of many noteworthy, historical, world disasters linked, select a historical Disaster from the list provided or another disaster of which you are aware, examining the details.  

https://www.history.com/tag/disasters

Consider and discuss with detail the divergence in responses seen between survivors of disasters and whether the outcomes across social, cultural, economic, and various factions of the population influence the potential for disaster recovery efforts and whether recovery principles would apply to the Disaster selected.

Also, required are for each forum are three (3) 200-word minimum length replies

Also, required are for each forum are three (3) 200-word minimum length replies to at least three different classmates, due by Sunday at 11:55 pm Eastern Time. 
#1

On 26 December, 2004, a massive 9.1 earthquake struck the Indian Ocean sending a massive tsunami screaming towards Sri Lanka, Thailand, and even as far as South Africa over 5,000 miles from the earthquake’s epicenter. Over 280,000 people were killed, and over a million more were displaced from their homes (World Health Organization, 2005). The physical loses were great, but equally great, yet not equally as focused on, are the mental and emotional ramifications of such a devastating event. As Dr. Pau Perez Sales states (2005), “There are areas where everybody knew someone who has lost everything or who had one or more family members disappeared. The tsunami will be a landmark in the memory of many communities,” (qtd. in World Health Organization).

Recovering from such a destructive event that affected so many people is a tall order. Aid agencies quickly prepared for a rise in mental health issues in the area and began to devise strategies to increase mental health professional’s abilities to aid survivors in coping with the aftermath. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that over 50% of the affected population would experience mental issues, with 5-10% of those survivors experiencing severe issues. Additionally, a survey of survivors showed over 40% of children affected suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (World Health Organization, 2005). 

The potential for disaster recovery in a situation like this is slim. To start, the tsunami struck areas that are generally considered poor. Without things such as insurance, as well as the destruction of their homes and livelihoods, survivors lost everything with almost no hope of recovering what they once had. Most were left asking themselves, “what now?” Additionally, as previously noted, almost everyone affected ended up losing a friend or a loved one, which fractures social structures and can leave survivors without a will to carry on and reach a point of recovery.

I think it is hard to apply recovery principles to this event. Phase 1 in particular was not and does not apply, because there was no real chance to prepare for a disaster such as this. A vast majority of the areas struck by the tsunami were far enough away that they did not feel the earthquake. Perplexed beachgoers even chased the receding waterline before the tsunami struck (Roos, 2018). Additionally, a majority of the mental health professionals working after the event worked through outside aid agencies, and were not there before the event to integrate with the community (World Health Organization, 2005). Phase 2 was not present, because again, most of the aid provided was from outside aid agencies. There was no community bonding and so-called “hero phase”. This carries on into phase 3. This is perhaps the most prevalent phase for this particular disaster, as aid began to come in and survivors began to grasp with the reality of their situation. Phases 4 and 5 are present only because this is where the survivors begin to adjust to their new normal. Seeing the phases applied to this specific scenario, it is my personal opinion that the phases of recovery are better, or rather easier, applied to less-poor areas where disaster preparation has occurred and mental health professionals are more profound within the area.

References

Roos, D. (2018). The 2004 Tsunami Wiped Away Towns With ‘Mind-Boggling’ Destruction. Retrieved from https://www.history.com/news/deadliest-tsunami-2004-indian-ocean.

World Health Organization (2005). Tsunami Wreaks Mental Health Havoc. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/83/6/infocus0605/en/.

#2

A community’s response to a disaster and ability to survive and recover is closely tied to its social, cultural, and economical status. Especially, when it comes to the psychological side of a disaster. People with greater means, on average, tend to be more resilient and able to recover from a disaster quicker. This is due to a greater support network and amount of resources available.

Disasters that displace a community, destroying infrastructure, and creating hardships tend to have a greater impact on poorer communities; as they do not have the resources to bounce back. One must take into account that available resources like alternate living accommodations, the ability to miss work, and the ability to afford repairs necessary are less available to the poor.   Additionally, poorer neighborhoods have been less likely to be prepared for disaster, historically. In the city of Tamuning, Guam, typhoons hit regularly. While the middle class and above live in fortified concrete houses with storm shutters, the poor tend to live in poorly built tin or wooden shacks. During these typhoons, the tin shacks are demolished, leaving the fragile communities decimated. This in turn perpetuates the issue of poverty, as these people now have trouble getting to work and recovering their belongings, and in often cases; they incur funeral costs and additional heartache. At the end of it all, the wealthy have little to no impact and recover quickly, while the poor are psychologically and economically decimated.

Social factors also play a part in disaster recovery. People who have a strong support network, often benefit from this network during a disaster. Benefits include everything from a place to evacuate, to emotional support during recovery. Social networks tend to be one of the greatest contributors to strong resiliency within a community. During typhoon Dolphin, in Guam, the poor had nowhere to go, their social support networks all resided among others within their community. This lead to unnecessary deaths.

Moreover, cultural factors play a part in disaster recovery. Often, in individualistic societies, communities are less apt to assist their neighbors when in need. In many areas, people are left to fend for themselves. As with social network behaviors, communities that tend to look after each other, fare better during disaster recovery.

#3

History has shown time and time again that humans will always show disregard for the safety of others in their quest for prosperity. In 1919, Boston became a swimming pool of hot, sticky molasses. This happened because “the tank used had not been strong enough to hold the molasses” (Molasses, 2019, para 5). The storage tank at the United States Industrial Alcohol Company ruptured with 2.5 million gallons of molasses inside. It engulfed the workers in the building, everyone around it, and destroyed several buildings and the train line. This is as close as it gets to a volcanic eruption in Boston. This stuff was hot enough to burn you alive, and once you were engulfed in it, its like being stuck in a vat of superglue. “In all, 21 people and dozens of horses were killed in the flood. It took weeks to clean the molasses from the streets of Boston” (Molasses, 2019, para 4). This was a man made disaster in it’s purest form, since a molasses volcano is impossible in nature. Concerning the five phases of a disaster, some applied and some didn’t. I will explain below.

Phase one of a disaster, or “Pre-Disaster,” is the time for communities to prepare for and plan for disasters related to their area. During this process, support networks make themselves known to the public at this time as well. I’m fairly sure that this phase didn’t happen. Not only was the city taken by surprise, but it was a very unconventional situation. Even today, I doubt many city planners account for the millions of gallons of molasses that may or may not flow through their streets some day. I mean, how can you possibly forsee something like this as an Emergency Manager? I didn’t even know molasses was stored by the millions of gallons, and had no idea that it had deadly consequences.

Phase two did happen however. This is simply the time in which the event occurs. I am sure there were unsung heroes during this time, since that’s just the American way. Boston magazine states that “the train conductor Royal Albert Leeman: “There’s the elevated passenger line that ran right above commercial street, and when a big piece of the tank severs the main support, a train had just gone by and jumped the tracks. The conductor is able to get out from his vestibule, makes his way across the tangled wreckage and stops another train from plunging to the street below. Those passenger trains ran every seven minutes between South Station and North Station,” Puleo says. “He was kind of a small hero”” (Buell, 2019, para 9). No doubt that there were others who acted in similarly heroic ways.

Phase three probably happened. It is human nature to detach from whatever was lost immediately after the fact. I don’t know if there were any outside agencies involved back then, but I have no doubt that the local emergency services were all hands on deck, along with a significant portion of the population helping the impacted, because ‘Merica.

Phase four, or “disillusion.” set in spades. Once the community began mourning, they started looking for blame. Naturally, they blamed the United States Industrial Alcohol Company since it was their molasses. “After a six-year-investigation that involved 3,000 witnesses and 45,000 pages of testimony, a special auditor finally determined that the company was at fault ” (Molasses, 2019, para 5). Funny enough, the company tried to absolve itself of the act by blaming anarchists and their pipe bombs. In the end, this statement was proven false, and the company paid for their carelessness.

The fifth and final phase of the disaster called “reconstruction” happened, as it usually does. The disaster paved the way for new safety rules across the country. “Virtually all of the building construction standards that we take for granted today—that architects need to show their work, that engineers need to sign and seal their plans, that building inspectors need to come out and look at projects—all of these are a direct result of the Great Boston Molasses Flood” (Buell, 2019, para 16). Take a look around your house. Every load bearing wall, outlet, breaker, and ceiling has a standard or “code” tied to it. You can thank a cost cutting alcohol company for that. Who said alcohol never accomplished something good?

Resources:

Buell, S. (2019, January 12). Anarchists, Horses, Heroes: 12 Things You Didn’t Know about the Great Boston Molasses Flood. Retrieved February 12, 2019, from https://www.bostonmagazine.com/news/2019/01/12/great-boston-molasses-flood-things-you-didnt-know/

Molasses floods Boston streets. (2019). Retrieved February 12, 2019, from https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/molasses-floods-boston-streets

2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami (Phuket, Thailand) https://www.history

2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami (Phuket, Thailand)
https://www.history.com/news/deadliest-tsunami-2004-indian-ocean

Instructions:  Technology makes vast amounts of information (and misinformation) readily available. The challenge is navigating this sea of information. Our goal for your general science education is to develop your scientific literacy. A critical skill you must develop is the ability to find reputable sources for scientific information.  There are many sources of high-quality scientific information on the open web; you just need to learn how to spot them.
For this week’s discussion:
• Select a source of meteorological information from the open web (the topic can be any topic related to meteorology or that of your research topic).
• Evaluate the source and explain why it is or is not a credible source of information.
• Provide a reference in APA format.

Original posts should be 250-350 words

Reply posts 100-200 words #1 For this forum post I chose an article titled “Hu

Reply posts 100-200 words
#1

For this forum post I chose an article titled “Hurricanes and Climate Change”, published by an organization called Union of Concerned Scientists. I chose this because the topic of this article is relevant to my research topic. In addition to this I researched key aspects and points of consideration when attempting to determine the credibility.  I took some of these key points and applied them to my selected article.

Firstly I considered the source of the article. While the “Union of Concerned Scientist” sounds professional, it lacks any affiliation to established academic entities. While the organization’s membership includes professional scientist it is predominantly an advocacy group. This brought me to another determining factor of source and article credibility, bias. With the publisher being above all an advocacy group, their objectivity must be considered.  As an advocacy group there is a strong possibility that an agenda competes with objectivity in the publishing of articles. Another small but significant aspect I noticed with this article is the lack of an accredited author. The absence of an author not only detracts from the credibility of the article but from the organization that allows it to be published as well. A highly credible organization would almost certainly require published material to posses an author acknowledgment.

The one aspect of credibility evaluation that the article passes with flying colors is the advertisements present on their page or more appropriately the lack there of. The format of the website seem professional and of an academic nature. Cheap advertisements and tabloid material are noticeably absent. Credible institutions are not as beholden to advertisement money.

In my personal opinion my selected article is a shade of grey when it comes to credibility. I feel that there is factual information within this article however the established possibility of a bias or agenda puts everything into question. The presentation of the website has all the benchmarks of a credibility, minus the anonymous author, however the publishing organization lacks a firm grounding in research or academia. Ultimately I would not feel comfortable using this article as a source. 

References:

Rogers, T. (2019, January 24). 8 Ways to Determine Website Reliability. Retrieved February 11, 2019, from https://www.thoughtco.com/gauging-website-reliability-2073838

Hurricanes and Climate Change. (2017, December 01). Retrieved February 11, 2019, from https://www.ucsusa.org/global-warming/science-and-impacts/impacts/hurricanes-and-climate-change.html#.XGHLRS2ZMrU

#2

For this week post, I have chosen a source that can easily be found with a simple web search. In fact, it took me less than 5 minutes to find the source.  This is directly related to my final project on Hurricane Katrina. In this post, I will describe the source, go over how I located it and conduct an evaluation of it.  The title of my source is “Tropical Cyclone Report Hurricane Katrina,” from the National Hurricane Center (Knabb, 2005).

I would describe this as scholarly government information.  It is pretty clear the authors produce a paper with high scholarly standards and being that is a paper published by the National Hurricane Center (part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA) it is government information.  It is 43 pages long and divided into two parts: 1) written report and 2) tables/figures.

The way I conduct my search for this source can be explained in 5 steps:
Step One: Use a web-based search engine. I used Google and use “NOAA Hurricane” as my search term. I choose this search term, I knew that NOAA is the US government agency responsible for weather data collection. I added “hurricane” to the term, because the subject of my final project is Hurricane Katrina.

Step Two: Select from search results: I selected the link for the National Hurricane Center because I believe it would provide the best information on my final project topic.

Step Three: Search the website: I saw that there was a search bar on the header bar for the website home page. I choose “Katrina” as my search term.

Step Four: Select for search results: I selected the paper entitled “Tropical Cyclone Report Hurricane Katrina (Knabb, 2005),” because it looked to be related to my final project topic.

Step Five: Evaluate the source:  When evaluating the paper, I choose the following criteria: authority, accuracy, objectivity, depth, and relevance.

Authority: The paper is produced by the US Government’s office which focuses on the hurricane, which means it rates high in this criterion.

Accuracy: The paper is full of measurement data, as well as statistics on the hurricane’s impact on the affected areas. It cites all of its sources, which means it rates high in this criterion.

Objectivity: As stated above this is a product of the US Government. It is clear the paper attempt to be objective. In the written report there is a subsection entitled “Forecast and Warning Critique (Knabb, 2005),” which goes over some of the issued identity about the forecasting during Hurricane Katrina. This results in a high rating for this criterion.

Depth: The paper dives deep into the measurement data and statistics, and completely cover the hurricane, start to finish, which mean it rates high in this criterion.

Relevance: The paper sole purpose it the report the event, Hurricane Katrina, and is completely relevant to my final project. It rate high in this criterion.

References

Knabb, R. D. (2005, DEC 20). Tropical Cyclone Report Hurricane Katrina. Retrieved FEB 11, 2019, from National Hurricane Center: https://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL122005_Katrina.pdf

In your previous assignment, you examined professional literature to plan the st

In your previous assignment, you examined professional literature to plan the structure and management of the group. With support from scholarly literature, present the following:              Group goal and objectives: Provide a general statement of the desired outcomes for group members. List three to five measurable group objectives aligned with the primary group goal.

By Wednesday at 11:55pm Eastern Time please post a 300-word minimum length “Init

By Wednesday at 11:55pm Eastern Time please post a 300-word minimum length “Initial Post” in response to the topic requirements on each forum during its scheduled week.
As we have begun our examination of the psychology of disaster, an indisputable reality is that disaster can be found in many forms and affect all communities. In our course text and other materials, the distinction between natural and man-made disasters has been made, providing many examples, both modern and historical, of the types and effects of disasters on humankind overtime.

After reviewing the course materials for the week, including the examples of many noteworthy, historical, world disasters linked, select a historical Disaster from the list provided or another disaster of which you are aware, examining the details.  

https://www.history.com/tag/disasters

Consider and discuss with detail the divergence in responses seen between survivors of disasters and whether the outcomes across social, cultural, economic, and various factions of the population influence the potential for disaster recovery efforts and whether recovery principles would apply to the Disaster selected.

Also, required are for each forum are three (3) 200-word minimum length replies

Also, required are for each forum are three (3) 200-word minimum length replies to at least three different classmates, due by Sunday at 11:55 pm Eastern Time. 
#1

On 26 December, 2004, a massive 9.1 earthquake struck the Indian Ocean sending a massive tsunami screaming towards Sri Lanka, Thailand, and even as far as South Africa over 5,000 miles from the earthquake’s epicenter. Over 280,000 people were killed, and over a million more were displaced from their homes (World Health Organization, 2005). The physical loses were great, but equally great, yet not equally as focused on, are the mental and emotional ramifications of such a devastating event. As Dr. Pau Perez Sales states (2005), “There are areas where everybody knew someone who has lost everything or who had one or more family members disappeared. The tsunami will be a landmark in the memory of many communities,” (qtd. in World Health Organization).

Recovering from such a destructive event that affected so many people is a tall order. Aid agencies quickly prepared for a rise in mental health issues in the area and began to devise strategies to increase mental health professional’s abilities to aid survivors in coping with the aftermath. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that over 50% of the affected population would experience mental issues, with 5-10% of those survivors experiencing severe issues. Additionally, a survey of survivors showed over 40% of children affected suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (World Health Organization, 2005). 

The potential for disaster recovery in a situation like this is slim. To start, the tsunami struck areas that are generally considered poor. Without things such as insurance, as well as the destruction of their homes and livelihoods, survivors lost everything with almost no hope of recovering what they once had. Most were left asking themselves, “what now?” Additionally, as previously noted, almost everyone affected ended up losing a friend or a loved one, which fractures social structures and can leave survivors without a will to carry on and reach a point of recovery.

I think it is hard to apply recovery principles to this event. Phase 1 in particular was not and does not apply, because there was no real chance to prepare for a disaster such as this. A vast majority of the areas struck by the tsunami were far enough away that they did not feel the earthquake. Perplexed beachgoers even chased the receding waterline before the tsunami struck (Roos, 2018). Additionally, a majority of the mental health professionals working after the event worked through outside aid agencies, and were not there before the event to integrate with the community (World Health Organization, 2005). Phase 2 was not present, because again, most of the aid provided was from outside aid agencies. There was no community bonding and so-called “hero phase”. This carries on into phase 3. This is perhaps the most prevalent phase for this particular disaster, as aid began to come in and survivors began to grasp with the reality of their situation. Phases 4 and 5 are present only because this is where the survivors begin to adjust to their new normal. Seeing the phases applied to this specific scenario, it is my personal opinion that the phases of recovery are better, or rather easier, applied to less-poor areas where disaster preparation has occurred and mental health professionals are more profound within the area.

References

Roos, D. (2018). The 2004 Tsunami Wiped Away Towns With ‘Mind-Boggling’ Destruction. Retrieved from https://www.history.com/news/deadliest-tsunami-2004-indian-ocean.

World Health Organization (2005). Tsunami Wreaks Mental Health Havoc. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/83/6/infocus0605/en/.

#2

A community’s response to a disaster and ability to survive and recover is closely tied to its social, cultural, and economical status. Especially, when it comes to the psychological side of a disaster. People with greater means, on average, tend to be more resilient and able to recover from a disaster quicker. This is due to a greater support network and amount of resources available.

Disasters that displace a community, destroying infrastructure, and creating hardships tend to have a greater impact on poorer communities; as they do not have the resources to bounce back. One must take into account that available resources like alternate living accommodations, the ability to miss work, and the ability to afford repairs necessary are less available to the poor.   Additionally, poorer neighborhoods have been less likely to be prepared for disaster, historically. In the city of Tamuning, Guam, typhoons hit regularly. While the middle class and above live in fortified concrete houses with storm shutters, the poor tend to live in poorly built tin or wooden shacks. During these typhoons, the tin shacks are demolished, leaving the fragile communities decimated. This in turn perpetuates the issue of poverty, as these people now have trouble getting to work and recovering their belongings, and in often cases; they incur funeral costs and additional heartache. At the end of it all, the wealthy have little to no impact and recover quickly, while the poor are psychologically and economically decimated.

Social factors also play a part in disaster recovery. People who have a strong support network, often benefit from this network during a disaster. Benefits include everything from a place to evacuate, to emotional support during recovery. Social networks tend to be one of the greatest contributors to strong resiliency within a community. During typhoon Dolphin, in Guam, the poor had nowhere to go, their social support networks all resided among others within their community. This lead to unnecessary deaths.

Moreover, cultural factors play a part in disaster recovery. Often, in individualistic societies, communities are less apt to assist their neighbors when in need. In many areas, people are left to fend for themselves. As with social network behaviors, communities that tend to look after each other, fare better during disaster recovery.

#3

History has shown time and time again that humans will always show disregard for the safety of others in their quest for prosperity. In 1919, Boston became a swimming pool of hot, sticky molasses. This happened because “the tank used had not been strong enough to hold the molasses” (Molasses, 2019, para 5). The storage tank at the United States Industrial Alcohol Company ruptured with 2.5 million gallons of molasses inside. It engulfed the workers in the building, everyone around it, and destroyed several buildings and the train line. This is as close as it gets to a volcanic eruption in Boston. This stuff was hot enough to burn you alive, and once you were engulfed in it, its like being stuck in a vat of superglue. “In all, 21 people and dozens of horses were killed in the flood. It took weeks to clean the molasses from the streets of Boston” (Molasses, 2019, para 4). This was a man made disaster in it’s purest form, since a molasses volcano is impossible in nature. Concerning the five phases of a disaster, some applied and some didn’t. I will explain below.

Phase one of a disaster, or “Pre-Disaster,” is the time for communities to prepare for and plan for disasters related to their area. During this process, support networks make themselves known to the public at this time as well. I’m fairly sure that this phase didn’t happen. Not only was the city taken by surprise, but it was a very unconventional situation. Even today, I doubt many city planners account for the millions of gallons of molasses that may or may not flow through their streets some day. I mean, how can you possibly forsee something like this as an Emergency Manager? I didn’t even know molasses was stored by the millions of gallons, and had no idea that it had deadly consequences.

Phase two did happen however. This is simply the time in which the event occurs. I am sure there were unsung heroes during this time, since that’s just the American way. Boston magazine states that “the train conductor Royal Albert Leeman: “There’s the elevated passenger line that ran right above commercial street, and when a big piece of the tank severs the main support, a train had just gone by and jumped the tracks. The conductor is able to get out from his vestibule, makes his way across the tangled wreckage and stops another train from plunging to the street below. Those passenger trains ran every seven minutes between South Station and North Station,” Puleo says. “He was kind of a small hero”” (Buell, 2019, para 9). No doubt that there were others who acted in similarly heroic ways.

Phase three probably happened. It is human nature to detach from whatever was lost immediately after the fact. I don’t know if there were any outside agencies involved back then, but I have no doubt that the local emergency services were all hands on deck, along with a significant portion of the population helping the impacted, because ‘Merica.

Phase four, or “disillusion.” set in spades. Once the community began mourning, they started looking for blame. Naturally, they blamed the United States Industrial Alcohol Company since it was their molasses. “After a six-year-investigation that involved 3,000 witnesses and 45,000 pages of testimony, a special auditor finally determined that the company was at fault ” (Molasses, 2019, para 5). Funny enough, the company tried to absolve itself of the act by blaming anarchists and their pipe bombs. In the end, this statement was proven false, and the company paid for their carelessness.

The fifth and final phase of the disaster called “reconstruction” happened, as it usually does. The disaster paved the way for new safety rules across the country. “Virtually all of the building construction standards that we take for granted today—that architects need to show their work, that engineers need to sign and seal their plans, that building inspectors need to come out and look at projects—all of these are a direct result of the Great Boston Molasses Flood” (Buell, 2019, para 16). Take a look around your house. Every load bearing wall, outlet, breaker, and ceiling has a standard or “code” tied to it. You can thank a cost cutting alcohol company for that. Who said alcohol never accomplished something good?

Resources:

Buell, S. (2019, January 12). Anarchists, Horses, Heroes: 12 Things You Didn’t Know about the Great Boston Molasses Flood. Retrieved February 12, 2019, from https://www.bostonmagazine.com/news/2019/01/12/great-boston-molasses-flood-things-you-didnt-know/

Molasses floods Boston streets. (2019). Retrieved February 12, 2019, from https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/molasses-floods-boston-streets

2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami (Phuket, Thailand) https://www.history

2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami (Phuket, Thailand)
https://www.history.com/news/deadliest-tsunami-2004-indian-ocean

Instructions:  Technology makes vast amounts of information (and misinformation) readily available. The challenge is navigating this sea of information. Our goal for your general science education is to develop your scientific literacy. A critical skill you must develop is the ability to find reputable sources for scientific information.  There are many sources of high-quality scientific information on the open web; you just need to learn how to spot them.
For this week’s discussion:
• Select a source of meteorological information from the open web (the topic can be any topic related to meteorology or that of your research topic).
• Evaluate the source and explain why it is or is not a credible source of information.
• Provide a reference in APA format.

Original posts should be 250-350 words

Reply posts 100-200 words #1 For this forum post I chose an article titled “Hu

Reply posts 100-200 words
#1

For this forum post I chose an article titled “Hurricanes and Climate Change”, published by an organization called Union of Concerned Scientists. I chose this because the topic of this article is relevant to my research topic. In addition to this I researched key aspects and points of consideration when attempting to determine the credibility.  I took some of these key points and applied them to my selected article.

Firstly I considered the source of the article. While the “Union of Concerned Scientist” sounds professional, it lacks any affiliation to established academic entities. While the organization’s membership includes professional scientist it is predominantly an advocacy group. This brought me to another determining factor of source and article credibility, bias. With the publisher being above all an advocacy group, their objectivity must be considered.  As an advocacy group there is a strong possibility that an agenda competes with objectivity in the publishing of articles. Another small but significant aspect I noticed with this article is the lack of an accredited author. The absence of an author not only detracts from the credibility of the article but from the organization that allows it to be published as well. A highly credible organization would almost certainly require published material to posses an author acknowledgment.

The one aspect of credibility evaluation that the article passes with flying colors is the advertisements present on their page or more appropriately the lack there of. The format of the website seem professional and of an academic nature. Cheap advertisements and tabloid material are noticeably absent. Credible institutions are not as beholden to advertisement money.

In my personal opinion my selected article is a shade of grey when it comes to credibility. I feel that there is factual information within this article however the established possibility of a bias or agenda puts everything into question. The presentation of the website has all the benchmarks of a credibility, minus the anonymous author, however the publishing organization lacks a firm grounding in research or academia. Ultimately I would not feel comfortable using this article as a source. 

References:

Rogers, T. (2019, January 24). 8 Ways to Determine Website Reliability. Retrieved February 11, 2019, from https://www.thoughtco.com/gauging-website-reliability-2073838

Hurricanes and Climate Change. (2017, December 01). Retrieved February 11, 2019, from https://www.ucsusa.org/global-warming/science-and-impacts/impacts/hurricanes-and-climate-change.html#.XGHLRS2ZMrU

#2

For this week post, I have chosen a source that can easily be found with a simple web search. In fact, it took me less than 5 minutes to find the source.  This is directly related to my final project on Hurricane Katrina. In this post, I will describe the source, go over how I located it and conduct an evaluation of it.  The title of my source is “Tropical Cyclone Report Hurricane Katrina,” from the National Hurricane Center (Knabb, 2005).

I would describe this as scholarly government information.  It is pretty clear the authors produce a paper with high scholarly standards and being that is a paper published by the National Hurricane Center (part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA) it is government information.  It is 43 pages long and divided into two parts: 1) written report and 2) tables/figures.

The way I conduct my search for this source can be explained in 5 steps:
Step One: Use a web-based search engine. I used Google and use “NOAA Hurricane” as my search term. I choose this search term, I knew that NOAA is the US government agency responsible for weather data collection. I added “hurricane” to the term, because the subject of my final project is Hurricane Katrina.

Step Two: Select from search results: I selected the link for the National Hurricane Center because I believe it would provide the best information on my final project topic.

Step Three: Search the website: I saw that there was a search bar on the header bar for the website home page. I choose “Katrina” as my search term.

Step Four: Select for search results: I selected the paper entitled “Tropical Cyclone Report Hurricane Katrina (Knabb, 2005),” because it looked to be related to my final project topic.

Step Five: Evaluate the source:  When evaluating the paper, I choose the following criteria: authority, accuracy, objectivity, depth, and relevance.

Authority: The paper is produced by the US Government’s office which focuses on the hurricane, which means it rates high in this criterion.

Accuracy: The paper is full of measurement data, as well as statistics on the hurricane’s impact on the affected areas. It cites all of its sources, which means it rates high in this criterion.

Objectivity: As stated above this is a product of the US Government. It is clear the paper attempt to be objective. In the written report there is a subsection entitled “Forecast and Warning Critique (Knabb, 2005),” which goes over some of the issued identity about the forecasting during Hurricane Katrina. This results in a high rating for this criterion.

Depth: The paper dives deep into the measurement data and statistics, and completely cover the hurricane, start to finish, which mean it rates high in this criterion.

Relevance: The paper sole purpose it the report the event, Hurricane Katrina, and is completely relevant to my final project. It rate high in this criterion.

References

Knabb, R. D. (2005, DEC 20). Tropical Cyclone Report Hurricane Katrina. Retrieved FEB 11, 2019, from National Hurricane Center: https://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL122005_Katrina.pdf

In your previous assignment, you examined professional literature to plan the st

In your previous assignment, you examined professional literature to plan the structure and management of the group. With support from scholarly literature, present the following:              Group goal and objectives: Provide a general statement of the desired outcomes for group members. List three to five measurable group objectives aligned with the primary group goal.