Week 8 – Career Management and Development A minimum 3-page write-up is required.

Week 8 – Career Management and Development
A minimum 3-page write-up is required.

Picture of Case Study and question(s) at the end of the Case Study:

Format Requirements: APA 6th Edition Style

Use three main headings:

· Introduction

· Analysis (Answer the question (s) in this section)

· Conclusion.

· Introduction should briefly discuss the case background.

· Analysis should have answers to each question with subheadings for each Question showing the related answer.

· Conclusion should be a summary of the main points you learned from the case in relation to human resource management and compensation practice.

Your work should clearly demonstrate an understanding of the concepts contained in the chapter through the use of scholarly research and practical, real world examples.

Grading Criteria

Grading Criteria: 500 Word Min.

Case Study Rubric:

Points:

1. Responses clearly demonstrate an understanding of chapter content.

10

2. Incorporates real work examples in response to case questions.

10

3. Use appropriate, direct language: the writing is compelling; the sentences are well-phrased and varied in length and structure and show strong organization.

10

4. Clearly states and defends two (2) key learnings.

10

5. Formatted to APA 6th Edtiton style. Use of APA template provided.

10

Total:

50

Week 8

Career

Management and Development

A minimum 3

page

write

up is required.

Picture of

Case Study

and

question(s)

at the end of the Case Study:

Week 8 – Career Management and Development

A minimum 3-page write-up is required.

Picture of Case Study and question(s) at the end of the Case Study:

Select a character from Proof. What main emotion is the character experiencing? What does he or she want? What is the conflict this character encounters? How does he or she attempt to get this desire? What prevents him or her from achieving it? What is the resolution by the end of the play for this character? Does the character change by the end of the play? What point do you want to make about the character in your essay? Make notes, and develop a thesis statement with support.

For this assignment, develop a short essay of at least three paragraphs and 500 words. In your response, be sure that you have the following: an introductory paragraph with a clear thesis statement, at least one body paragraph with supporting reasons, examples, and quotations from the play, and a concluding paragraph. The thesis statement should be your main argument analyzing the character you have chosen. Use APA style for formatting the paper and for in-text citations and end references.

Brainstorming Questions

Select a character from Proof. What main emotion is the character experiencing? What does he or she want? What is the conflict this character encounters? How does he or she attempt to get this desire? What prevents him or her from achieving it? What is the resolution by the end of the play for this character? Does the character change by the end of the play? What point do you want to make about the character in your essay? Make notes, and develop a thesis statement with support.

Reminders

Use APA style, and include a title page, running header, proper font and spacing, in-text citations, and a separate references page.
Do not use any outside sources to complete this response; rely on your own insights.
Quoted material from the play should not exceed 25% of the essay.
You may exceed the minimum word and paragraph count.

This week’s discussion designed for you to do some self-evaluation in terms of your personal career. This week’s discussion also should start you thinking, if you have not already done so, about specific career development initiatives you can take now that will help you make notable progress toward your career goals.

Week 8 Discussion: 500 Word Min.

&

Class Member Response 150 Word Min.

Career Management

This week’s discussion designed for you to do some self-evaluation in terms of your personal career. This week’s discussion also should start you thinking, if you have not already done so, about specific career development initiatives you can take now that will help you make notable progress toward your career goals.

Discussion Question:

What is the difference between career management and career development, or is there a difference? What are you doing or do you need to do regarding your career development.

SCROLL DOWN

Class Member Discussion Topic Responses Week 8 : 150 Word Min.

Grading Criteria

You are required to respond with depth, breadth and insight to the discussion question(s) as well as one of your class members. Your response to the discussion question(s) must be tied back to the chapter material and outside research is expected. When I ask you to support your answer, you are expected to combine opinion with, minimum 2, citations, insight from your experiences, observations of others experiences, analysis of the facts/information and a conclusion. PLEASE do not limit your citations to just the book! Find other supporting material outside of the class structure. You are also required to answer the question posed by the instructor and class members’. (Please note: The guidance outlined above will contribute to you “meeting the expectations” for the discussion. Additional participation will contribute to a grade that will “exceed the expectations” for the discussion

The combined original reply and two responses are worth up to 20 points per student. The criteria used to determine the point distribution will be:

Original Reply:

10 points

Initiated Peer Reply (2):

8 points

Uses of sources:

2 points

Cite examples, textbook material, or your own supporting material to back up your opinion.

Action: Read the below peer discussion board posts and provide your classmate with feedback on your opinion of their position. Do you agree and why? Do you disagree and why? Replies to your class members’ are intended to move the discussion forward. Telling them that they simply did a good job is not acceptable. Statements like “I feel”, “I believe” and/or “I think” are difficult to measure and, highly, subjective. Asking a question or two about the position they took will move the discussion forward. Replies are 150 word minimum

Peer Reply #1

Week Eight Discussion Career Management
by Shannon Cathey – Monday, February 24, 2020, 8:06 PM

Number of replies: 0

What is the difference between career management and career development, or is there a difference? What are you doing or do you need to do regarding your career development.

Before I can answer this question, I needed to focus on the exact definition of Career. A career is defined as the occupation endeavored by a person, for an important period of his (her) life. A career is making money doing what a person is passionate about, something a person will do without getting distracted, it’s something a person wants to see himself as, in the future. A career is what you have done so far and what you are going to do next. (Surbhi July 26, 2018).

Yes. There is a difference between career management and career development. Werner defines career development as “an ongoing process by which individuals progress through a series of stages, each of which is characterized by a relatively unique set of issues, themes and tasks.” (Werner 2017). These stages can include courses or class based training needed to stay current and/or advance in their industry; An individual will also attend workshops, conferences, seminars and webinars to further their professional development. Career management is the continual process of setting career-related goals and planning a route to achieve those goals. It includes taking into consideration goals for salary, title, skills, and mastery. Career management also includes mapping out the actions and knowledge needed to reach those goals. (Association Adviser staff September 15, 2015). It is an ongoing process of preparing, implementing, and monitoring career plans undertaken by the individual alone or in concert with the organization’s career systems.” One must go through career development in order to sucessfully complete the steps of career management. “The outcome of successful career management should include personal fulfillment, work/life balance, goal achievement and financial security.” (Block 2020).

In regards to my career development, I am currently enrolled in classes to develop and enhance skills to have a career in Human Resources. After working several years in the accounting field, which included payroll and working closely with the HR department. I have an interest to be in the Human Resources’ department. I am striving to be in a position where I can utilize my current career skills and intermingle them with any new knowledge I am obtaining.

References

Werner, J. M. (2017). HHH Human Resource Development (7th ed). Boston, MA: CENAGE Learning

Surbhi, S. (July 26, 2018). Difference Between Job and Career. Retrieved February 23, 2020 from: https://keydifferences.com/difference-between-job-and-career.html

Association Adviser Staff (September 15, 2015). Professional Development vs. Career Management Retrieved February 23, 2020 from: https://www.naylor.com/associationadviser/professional- development-career-management/

Block, Randy (2020). Why Career Management is Essential Today. Retrieved February 23, 2020 from: https://www.job-hunt.org/career-management/what-why-career-management.shtml

Week 8

Discussion

: 500 Word Min.

&

Class Member Response 150 Word Min.

Career Management

This

week’s

discussion designed for you to do some

self

evaluation

in terms of your personal career. This

week’s discussion also should start you thinking, if you have not already done so, about specific career

development initiatives you can take now that

will help you make notable progress toward your career

goals

.

Discussion Question:

What is the difference between career management and career development, or is there a

difference? What are you doing or do you need to do regarding your career development

.

SCROLL DOWN

Week 8 Discussion: 500 Word Min.

&

Class Member Response 150 Word Min.

Career Management

This week’s discussion designed for you to do some self-evaluation in terms of your personal career. This

week’s discussion also should start you thinking, if you have not already done so, about specific career

development initiatives you can take now that will help you make notable progress toward your career

goals.

Discussion Question:

What is the difference between career management and career development, or is there a

difference? What are you doing or do you need to do regarding your career development.

SCROLL DOWN

You have recently changed jobs, and have left your previous role working in the hospitality and tourism industry, and have taken a position with HealthyCo–a major health insurance provider–in hopes of advancing your career. During your first week on the job, you have received a fairly comprehensive orientation to the new environment and have a preliminary understanding of the organization.

Instructions

You have recently changed jobs, and have left your previous role working in the hospitality and tourism industry, and have taken a position with HealthyCo–a major health insurance provider–in hopes of advancing your career. During your first week on the job, you have received a fairly comprehensive orientation to the new environment and have a preliminary understanding of the organization.

HealthyCo is currently supporting over 10 million members across the United States, all of whom have clinical data related to their health within the organization’s tools. One such tool is a complex web portal allowing users to log in and access medical records, treatment history, select a doctor, find a hospital, submit medical claims receipts, and much more. A mobile app has also been released that allows for remote access to these systems, as well as incentive trackers for fitness programs, wellness programs for pregnant mothers, dietary advice, and access to a 24/7 emergency nurse service for support over the phone.

Your boss, Marissa Brooks, has tasked you with explaining the current space to a group of board members and upper management by providing a high-level assessment of opportunities of how business intelligence practices could be employed for the online portion of the business and how it can relate back to clinical systems. As you are still new, the request is not to focus on specifics, but more on opportunities at a high-level such as at a system-to-system level.

The questions they are presenting you with include:

How can business intelligence practices improve our member’s experience? What can we do with this information?
What recommendations do you have for changes or additions to our current system structure?
Is there a need for a full business intelligence team in our organization, or can we work within our current employee base and just add duties to those who are qualified?
The task:

Record a presentation using the screen sharing Webware/software of your choice (an Internet search will reveal many free options). Your presentation can be recorded with your own voiceover and visuals, just as you would if you were giving the presentation live.

Your proposal to the board and management should explain why a dedicated business intelligence team should be put into place to support HealthyCo and its continued growth, with a specific focus on the systems mentioned above. Your proposal should include specifics related to integration opportunities with the identified systems, the importance of data privacy, data warehousing opportunities to leverage data collected and stored, opportunities for executive dashboard creation and use, and a list of business intelligence team members and what their primary duties would be.

Create a summary report to accompany your presentation as a takeaway for your board and executive management team.

Apply the principles of accrual accounting and accounting cycles.

Competencies
Analyze the role of accounting in business operations.
Apply the principles of accrual accounting and accounting cycles.
Appraise the financial health and performance of a company.
Analyze cost behaviors and production costing methods.
Employ accounting data for business analysis and prediction.
Evaluate accounting-related legal and ethical business implications.
Scenario
The Vice President of Finance called you into a meeting to discuss the overall vision and future of your company. He states that he has always admired International Business Machines (IBM) since he studied the company in college. The VP has not followed the company as of late and would like you to prepare an update as to how IBM is doing over last three years and the top line outlook for next year. The VP would like you to use similar techniques that you have used in writing your previous reports.

Instructions
Using the financial statements of International Business Machines Corporation:

Prepare an income statement vertical and horizontal analysis of International Business Machines Corporation using three years of data. Use Mergent Online to download income statement to Excel.

importantBe sure to search for International Business Machines Corp, and choose the United States entity.
FAQ for accessing and downloading income statements
Using the line item descriptions from the income statement, create a new tab and identify which expenses (costs) are likely fixed, variable, product, and period costs.
Using Mergent Online, create a ratio analysis report showing International Business Machines Corporation and its largest 4 competitors based on total revenue

Download the following ratios and peer average into Excel. Format and arrange the data in a professional manner:
Current Ratio
Gross Margin
Inventory % of TA
Inventory Turnover
Debt/Equity Ratio
Net Current Assets % TA
Net PPE % TA
Net Profit Margin %
Operating Margin %
R + D % TR
ROA %
ROE %
ROI %
Selling and General Admin % TR
Total Asset Turnover
Using the historical income statement data, prepare a sales (revenue) forecast for the upcoming year including your assumptions, calculations, and rationale.
Using the SEC.gov website, find articles on of International Business Machines Corporation and comment in a Word document on any recent accounting standards or ethical considerations that affect the company.

Write a three-page essay (double spaced with 11 or 12 point font) on one of the following topics. Please be sure to write clearly and concisely, and include an introductory paragraph, a thesis statement, a concluding paragraph (in addition to the body of your paper), and a bibliography.

Write a three-page essay (double spaced with 11 or 12 point font) on one of the following topics. Please be sure to write clearly and concisely, and include an introductory paragraph, a thesis statement, a concluding paragraph (in addition to the body of your paper), and a bibliography. Please be sure to use citations to support your argument! Footnotes or MLA-style/ parenthetical citations are fine. See me if you need any assistance on this. If you choose to use outside sources (including websites), these must be approved at least 24 hours prior to the due date of the paper. Feel free to include photographs if you’d like. PLEASE BE SURE TO PROOFREAD YOUR PAPER FOR SPELLING AND GRAMMATICAL ERRORS to avoid penalties

The Tomb of the Griffin Warrior: read about the recent discovery of the LHII Tomb of the Griffin Warrior found near Pylos in the following article: https://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/27/science/a-warriors-grave-at-pylosgreece-could-be-a-gateway-to-civilizations.html?_r=1 Next, read the updated article about this important tomb: https://www.archaeology.org/issues/352-1909/features/7900-greece-pylosmycenaean-warrior-grave What can this burial tell us about the tombs’ occupant? What do the skeletal remains reveal? Do the grave goods seem to be gender specific? If so, how? Do they appear to be generic grave goods or do they seem purposefully chosen for the individual with whom they are interred? Please use specific artifacts to support your argument (citing the articles for your information).

People & Perspectives: Tom Beauchamp, PhD – (Excerpt) Reflections on “Respect for Persons”

Please view the unit videos and take notes as you view them. In your “Main Post” select two or three ideas that struck as being particularly interesting or important. In your first sentence identify the points you will discuss. Then thoughtfully discuss the points that you selected.

Are All Men Liars? Anderson Cooper interviews The Ethics Guy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S9lnVAkHIhQ (9:03)

People & Perspectives: Robert Levine, MD – (Excerpt) “Respect for Persons” as an American Concept https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u9CCSAHBjUA (4:29)

People & Perspectives: Tom Beauchamp, PhD – (Excerpt) Reflections on “Respect for Persons” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v2hrMWEmQLw (3:46)

Make sure that you submit two posts: (1) “Main Post” – one post should address the discussion topic. (2) “Response Post” – one post should be a response to another person`s post. Each post needs to be 15 – 20 sentences in length. Also, make sure that you read all or almost all of the posts of your classmates. You are reminded that in your discussion posts you will be expected to show that you are integrating ideas from the assigned unit readings and the other resources provided (articles from newspapers, magazines, journals, and videos) into your posts. Failure to do this will result in a lower discussion grade and a successful discussion post that refers to specific readings and videos will receive a higher discussion grade. Your “Main Post” needs to be submitted by midnight Friday and your “Response Post” needs to be submitted by midnight on Sunday.

Case Study, Chapter 14, Medical Errors: An Ongoing Threat to Quality Health Care

Case Study, Chapter 14, Medical Errors: An Ongoing Threat to Quality Health Care

A nurse manager is reviewing occurrence reports of medical errors over the last six months. The nurse manager knows that medical errors are not the only indicator of quality of care. They are, however, a pervasive problem in the current health care system and one of the greatest threats to quality health care. The nurse manager is putting together a list of possible solutions to decrease the number of occurrences of medication errors.

1. Recognizing that health care errors affect at least one in every 10 patients around the world, the World Health Organization’s World Alliance for Patient Safety and the Collaborating Centre identified priority program areas related to patient safety. What are the patient safety program areas the nurse manager should consider for implementation?

2. Describe the Joint Commission 2017 National Patient Safety Goals for Hospitals.

3. Discuss the Institute of Medicine’s four-pronged approach to reducing medical mistakes?

Management Information System MIS 201

Management Information System MIS 201

Semester 2 (2019-2020)

Assignment Details

Prepare an in-depth analysis of four case studies during the semester. Here are some guidelines:

· This is an individual assessment, which is a part from your course score. It requires effort and critical thinking

· This assignment will worth 25 mark (Case Studies Questions 15 Marks/ Presentation 10 Marks)

· Answer all the questions listed below for each case.

· The ‘answers’ to the questions are best formulated by reviewing the case and the reading materials up and including the current week in the course.

· The questions are worded to help you apply the readings to the case, so don’t limit yourself to the case’s terminology and perspective. The best analysis will abstract the case content by applying the reading materials to draw broader lessons about the material

· As for the Presentation you should summarize your analysis of only one case study in a set of PowerPoint slides

Case Study 1: Should a Computer Grade Your Essays?

1) Identify the kinds of systems described in this case. (1 Mark)

2) What are the benefits of automated essay grading? What are the drawbacks? (1 Mark)

3) What management, organization, and technology factor should be considered when deciding whether to use AES? (1 Mark)

Case Study 2: American Water Keeps Data Flowing

1) How did implementing a data warehouse help American Water move toward a more centralized organization? (1 Mark)

2) Give some examples of problems that would have occurred at American Water if its data were not “clean”? (1 Mark)

3) How did American Water’s data warehouse improve operations and management decision making? (1 Mark)

Case Study 3: Driving Ari Fleet Management with Real-Time Analytics

1) Why was data management so problematic at ARI? (1 Mark)

2) Describe ARI’s earlier capabilities for data analysis and reporting and their impact on the business. (1 Mark)

3) Was SAP HANA a good solution for ARI? Why or why not? (1 Mark)

4) Describe the changes in the business as a result of adopting HANA. (1 Mark)

Case Study 4: Zappos

1) Define SCM and how it can benefit Zappos. (1 Mark)

2) Explain CRM and why Zappos would benefit from the implementation of a CRM system. (1 Mark)

3) Demonstrate why Zappos would need to implement SCM, CRM, and ERP for a connected corporation. (1 Mark)

4) Analyze the merger between Zappos and Amazon and assess potential issues for Zappos customers. (1 Mark)

5) Propose a plan for how Zappos can use Amazon’s supply chain to increase sales and customer satisfaction. (1 Mark)

Case Study 1: Should a Computer Grade Your Essays?

Would you like your college essays graded by a computer? Well, you just might find that happening in your next course. In April 2013, EdX, a Harvard/MIT joint venture to develop massively open online courses (MOOCs), launched an essay-scoring program. Using artificial intelligence technology, essays and short answers are immediately scored and feedback tendered, allowing students to revise, resubmit, and improve their grade as many times as necessary. The non-profit organization is offering the software free to any institution that wants to use it. From a pedagogical standpoint—if the guidance is sound—immediate feedback and the ability to directly act on it is an optimal learning environment. But while proponents trumpet automated essay grading’s superiority to students waiting days or weeks for returned papers— which they may or may not have the opportunity to revise—as well as the time-saving benefit for instructors, critics doubt that humans can be replaced.

In 2012, Les Perelman, the former director of writing at MIT, countered a paper touting the proficiency of automated essay scoring (AES) software. University of Akron College of Education dean, Mark Shermis, and co-author, data scientist Ben Hamner used AES programs from nine companies, including Pearson and McGraw-Hill, to rescore over 16,000 middle and high school essays from six different state standardized tests. Their Hewlett Foundation sponsored study found that machine scoring closely tracked human grading, and in some cases, produced a more accurate grade. Perelman, however, found that no direct statistical comparison between the human graders and the programs was performed. While Shermis concedes that regression analysis was not performed—because the software companies imposed this condition in order to allow him and Hamner to test their products—he unsurprisingly accuses Perelman of evaluating their work without performing research of his own.

Perelman has in fact conducted studies on the Electronic Essay Rater (e-rater) developed by the Educational Testing Service (ETS)—the only organization that would allow him access. The e-rater uses syntactic variety, discourse structure (like PEG) and content analysis (like IEA) and is based on natural language processing technology. It applies statistical analysis to linguistic features like argument formation and syntactic variety to determine scores, but also gives weight to vocabulary and topical content. In the month granted him, Perelman analyzed the algorithms and toyed with the e-Rater, confirming his prior critiques. The major problem with AES programs (so far) is that they cannot distinguish fact from fiction. For example, in response to an essay prompt about the causes for the steep rise in the cost of higher education, Perelman wrote that the main driver was greedy teaching assistants whose salaries were six times that of college presidents with exorbitant benefits packages including South Seas vacations, private jets, and movie contracts. He supplemented the argument with a line from Allen Ginsberg’s “Howl,” and received the top score of 6. The metrics that merited this score included overall length, paragraph length, number of words per sentence, word length, and the use of conjunctive adverbs such as “however” and “moreover.” Since computer programs cannot divine meaning, essay length is a proxy for writing fluency, conjunctive adverb use for complex thinking, and big words for vocabulary aptitude.

Program vendors such as Pearson and Vantage Learning defend these parameters, asserting that they are highly correlated. Good writers have acquired skills that enable them to write more under time constraints; they use more complex vocabulary, and they understand how to introduce, interrupt, connect, and conclude complex ideas—the jobs of conjunctive adverbs. AES programs also recognize sentence fragments and dock students for sentences that begin with “and” or “or.” However, professional writers know how to employ both to great effect. Perelman and a newly formed group of educators, Professionals Against Machine Scoring of Student Essays in High-Stakes Assessment, warn that writing instruction will be dumbed down to meet the limited and rigid metrics machines are capable of measuring.

The productivity gains from using automated essay-grading software will undoubtedly take away some of the jobs of the graders hired by the standardized test companies. Pearson, for example, ostensibly pays its graders between $40 and $60 per hour. In that hour, a grader expected to score between 20 and 30 essays—that is two to three minutes (and dollars) per essay. Clearly graders must use some type of shorthand metrics in order to score this quickly, but at least they can recognize as false the statement that on July 4, 2013, the United States observed its 2,013th birthday, even if it is contained in a well-constructed sentence. While the e-Rater can score 16,000 essays in 20 seconds, it cannot make this distinction. In addition, presumably, a 716-word essay containing multiple nonsense sentences will not receive a 6 from a human grader while a 150-word shorter, factual, well-reasoned essay scores a 5, as Perelman was able to demonstrate.

ETS, developer of the SAT, GRE, Praxis, and K-12 standardized tests for multiple states, counters that the e-Rater is not replacing human graders in high stakes tests; it is supplementing them. Essays are scored by both human and machine and when the scores do not match, a second human breaks the impasse. Furthermore, they posit that the test prep course Perelman developed to teach students how to beat AES software requires higher-order thinking skills—precisely those the tests seek to measure. Thus, if students can master Perelman’s techniques, they have likely earned their 6. Pearson adds that its Intelligent Essay Assessor is primarily a classroom tool, allowing students to revise their essays multiple times before turning them in to a teacher to be graded. However, for many states looking to introduce writing sections to their battery of K-12 standardized tests, and for those that abandoned the effort due to the cost, eliminating graders altogether will make them affordable. In addition, the stakes are not insubstantial for failure to achieve passing grades on state standardized tests, ranging from retesting, to remedial programs, to summer school, to non-promotion.

ETS, developer of the SAT, GRE, Praxis, and K-12 standardized tests for multiple states, counters that the e-Rater is not replacing human graders in high stakes tests; it is supplementing them. Essays are scored by both human and machine and when the scores do not match, a second human breaks the impasse. Furthermore, they posit that the test prep course Perelman developed to teach students how to beat AES software requires higher-order thinking skills—precisely those the tests seek to measure. Thus, if students can master Perelman’s techniques, they have likely earned their 6. Pearson adds that its Intelligent Essay Assessor is primarily a classroom tool, allowing students to revise their essays multiple times before turning them in to a teacher to be graded. However, for many states looking to introduce writing sections to their battery of K-12 standardized tests, and for those that abandoned the effort due to the cost, eliminating graders altogether will make them affordable. In addition, the stakes are not insubstantial for failure to achieve passing grades on state standardized tests, ranging from retesting, to remedial programs, to summer school, to non-promotion. In addition, that provides immediate guidance, is a welcome addition to the instructional toolbox. However, as demands on instructor’s time decrease, will university administrators push staff cutbacks to meet budgetary constraints? Will fewer and fewer instructors be teaching more and more students?

As MOOC and AES proliferate, the answer is: most likely. EdX is quickly becoming controversial in academic circles. Presently, its course offerings are free and students earn a certificate of completion, but not course credit. To become self-sustaining, however, the non-profit plans to offer its MOOC platform as a “self-service” system, which faculty members can use to develop courses specifically branded for their universities. EdX will then receive the first $50,000 in revenue generated from the course or $10,000 for a recurring course. Thereafter, revenue will be split 50-50 between the university and EdX. A second revenue-generating model offers universities “production help” with course development, charging them $250,000 for a new course and $50,000 each term the course is offered again. If a course is successful, the university receives 70% of the revenue, as long as EdX has been fully compensated for any self-service courses. However, in order to generate enough revenue to share with its 12 university partners, which now include University of California, Berkeley, Wellesley, Georgetown, and the University of Texas, a licensing model is likely. Tested at no charge at San Jose State University in 2012, an EdX MOOC served as the basis for a blended online engineering course. The enriched curriculum resulted in an increased passing rate from 60% to 91 %. If course licensing becomes the key revenue stream, Anant Agarwal, the electrical engineer president of EdX, foresees this happening in closed classrooms with limited enrollment.

But some members of the San Jose State faculty are nonetheless alarmed. When a second EdX MOOC, JusticeX, was considered, the Philosophy department sent a sharply-worded letter addressed to Harvard course developer, Michael Sandel, but actually leveled at university administrators. Asserting that the department did not have an academic problem in need of remediation and was not lacking faculty to teach its equivalent course, it did not shy from attacking the economic motives behind public universities’ embrace of MOOCs. The authors further asserted that MOOCs represented a decline in educational quality and noted the irony involved when a social justice course was the vehicle for perpetrating a social injustice—a long-term effort to “dismantle departments and replace professors.” Sandel’s conciliatory response expressed his desire to share free educational resources, his aversion to undercutting colleagues, and a call for a serious debate at both EdX and in the higher education community.

Other universities are similarly pushing back, against both EdX and other new MOOC ventures such as Coursera and Udacity, founded by Stanford faculty members. MOOCs and AES are inextricably linked. Massive online courses require automated assessment systems. In addition, both Coursera and Udacity have expressed their commitment to using them due to the value of immediate feedback. Amherst College faculty voted against joining the EdX consortium. Duke University faculty members thwarted administration attempts to join nine other universities and educational technology company 2U in a venture to develop a collection of for-credit undergraduate courses.

However, EdX was founded by two of the most prominent universities in the United States, has gathered prestigious partners, and is already shaping educational standards. Stanford, for one, has decided to get on board; it adopted the OpenEdX open-source platform and began offering a summer reading program for freshman and two public courses in the summer of 2013. Stanford will collaborate with EdX on the future development of OpenEdX and will offer both public and university classes on it.

Therefore, while Professor Perelman jokes that his former computer science major students could develop an Android app capable of spitting out formulaic essays that would get a 6 from e-Rater, cutting humans completely out of the equation, he knows that serious issues are in play. What educational outcomes will result from diminishing human interaction and input? Will AI develop to the point that truth, accuracy, effective organization, persuasiveness, argumentation and supporting evidence can be evaluated? And how many more jobs in education will disappear as a result?

Case Study 1: American Water Keeps Data Flowing

American Water, founded in 1886, is the largest public water utility in the United States. Headquartered in Voorhees, N.J., the company employs more than 7,000 dedicated professionals who provide drinking water, wastewater and other related services to approximately 16 million people in 35 states, as well as Ontario and Manitoba, Canada. Most of American Water’s services support locally managed utility subsidiaries that are regulated by the U.S. state in which each operates as well as the federal government. American Water also owns subsidiaries that manage municipal drinking water and wastewater systems under contract and others that supply businesses and residential communities with water management products and services.

Until recently, American water’s systems and business, processes were much localized, and many of these processes were manual. Over time, this information environment became increasingly difficult to manage. Many systems were not integrated, so that running any type of report that had to provide information about more than one region was a heavily manual process. Data had to be extracted from the systems supporting each region and then combined manually to create the desired output. When the company was preparing to hold an initial public offering of its stock in 2006, its software systems could not handle the required regulatory controls, so roughly 80 percent of this work had to be performed manually. It was close to a nightmare.

Management wanted to change the company from a decentralized group of independent regional businesses into a more centralized organization with standard company-wide business processes and enterprise-wide reporting. The first step toward achieving this goal was to implement an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system designed to replace disparate systems with a single integrated software platform. The company selected SAP as its ERP system vendor.

An important step of this project was to migrate the data from American Water’s old systems to the new platform. The company’s data resided in many different systems in various formats. Each regional business maintained some of its own data in its own systems, and a portion of these data was redundant and inconsistent. For example, there were duplicate pieces of materials master data because a material might be called one thing in the company’s Missouri operation and another in its New Jersey business. These names had to be standardized so that every business unit used the same name for a piece of data. American Water’s business users had to buy into this new company-wide view of data.

Data migration entails much more than just transferring data between old and new systems. Business users need to know that data are not just a responsibility of the information systems department: the business “owns” the data. Business needs determine the rules and standards for managing the data. Therefore, it is up to business users to inventory and review all the pieces of data in their systems to determine precisely which pieces of data from the old system will be used in the new system and which data do not need to be brought over. The data also need to be reviewed to make sure they are accurate and consistent and that redundant data are eliminated.

Most likely some type of data cleansing will be required. For example, American Water had data on more than 70,000 vendors in its vendor master data file. Andrew Clarkson, American Water’s Business Intelligence Lead, asked business users to define an active vendor and to use that definition to identify which data to migrate. He also worked with various functional groups to standardize how to present address data.

Case Study, Chapter 14, Medical Errors: An Ongoing Threat to Quality Health Care A nurse manager is reviewing occurrence reports of medical errors over the last six months.

Case Study, Chapter 14, Medical Errors: An Ongoing Threat to Quality Health Care
A nurse manager is reviewing occurrence reports of medical errors over the last six months. The nurse manager knows that medical errors are not the only indicator of quality of care. They are, however, a pervasive problem in the current health care system and one of the greatest threats to quality health care. The nurse manager is putting together a list of possible solutions to decrease the number of occurrences of medication errors.

1. Recognizing that health care errors affect at least one in every 10 patients around the world, the World Health Organization’s World Alliance for Patient Safety and the Collaborating Centre identified priority program areas related to patient safety. What are the patient safety program areas the nurse manager should consider for implementation?

2. Describe the Joint Commission 2017 National Patient Safety Goals for Hospitals.

3. Discuss the Institute of Medicine’s four-pronged approach to reducing medical mistakes?

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