This if for health service administration

In your one or two page essay, describe your personal aspirations and career goals, and address the importance of the scholarship assistance to you in meeting these goals. Please include any information that would give the Scholarship Committee a better understanding of the importance of this scholarship to you and be sure your essay is readable. Your essay should also include your commitment to remain and practice in the South Florida community for three years post-graduation.

This if for health service administration



This is the final submission of your research assignment for this course. The research paper must directly address your approved topic defined during the Residency Weekend through the assignment – Topic Selection and contain all of the following elements;

a title page.
an introduction of the content of the paper, including the scholarly value of your research.
a brief review of the recent literature related to your topic.
a brief analysis of the synthesized conclusions of the existing research related to your topic.
a conclusion that summarizes the content of your paper and discusses research gaps and future research opportunities related to your topic.
a reference page(s).
To complete this assignment, upload a Microsoft Word document (.doc or .docx) that contains your complete paper. Remember that your paper, including your list of sources, must be in APA format, and you MUST cite your references in the body of the paper using APA in-text citation format. A source is any paper or article that you will reference in your paper. If you need more information on APA format (for references list AND in-text citations), visit this reference:

This assignment must be YOUR OWN WORK! This is an individual assignment. Plagiarism detected in your work will be addressed as discussed in the plagiarism section of the syllabus.

Here are a few details about the overall research paper Please look at the attached rubric for details on how the paper will be graded.

Your paper must include both a Title page and a Reference page.
Your paper should NOT include an abstract.
You paper must include a minimum of 7 peer reviewed resources (articles or papers)
Cited sources must directly support your paper (i.e. not incidental references)
Your paper must be at least 1500 words in length (but NOT longer than 2000 words; Scholarly writing should be efficient and precise. Be clear in the information that you are conveying and with the evidence used to support it. Here is a good resource to help with writing concisely:
Title and reference pages are NOT included in calculating the paper length.
If you are not sure how to identify peer-reviewed papers or articles, please visit the following resources:

This paper should be an essay of 1,000-1,500 words (approximately 4-6 pages) in length, consist of original research and analysis, and be worth a total of 350 points towards your final grade

This paper should be an essay of 1,000-1,500 words (approximately 4-6 pages) in length, consist of original research and analysis, and be worth a total of 350 points towards your final grade

During the mid-20th century, black Americans increasing looked towards the anti-colonialist/pro-independence movements taking hold in South Asia and coastal West Africa as compatriots struggling for social, political, and economic equality in an unequal western reality. In the United States, black civil rights leaders, particularly Martin Luther King, Jr., drew inspiration from Mohandas Gandhi’s pacifist protests and demonstrations against British imperial rule. India and Ghana’s independence from European colonial rule, in 1946 and 1957 respectively, signified the achievement of sovereignty, self-determination, and the possibility of equality under the law. They also represented the hope and possibility of equal social, political, and legal treatment of black Americans in a United States deeply divided along racial lines.

For this paper, you will consider historical primary sources in the form of newspaper articles and editorials by American civil rights advocates and non-advocates, and you will construct an argument about how Indian and Ghanaian independence shaped the American civil rights movement during the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s.

This is an argumentative essay, which means that your paper should have an introduction ending with a clear, concise, and arguable thesis statement. In your formulating your paper’s argument, please think about some of the following questions:

What did Indian and Ghanaian independence mean to American civil rights advocates?
What arguments and/or counterarguments did more mainstream/White newspapers advance?
How did the arrival of Ghanaian leaders to the United States in 1957 influence the pro-civil rights newspapers’ discussion of segregation and Jim Crow laws?

Family Therapy Research Presentation

Assignment 3-Family Therapy Research Power Point- (40 points)

Select a presented family therapy in the textbook and submit a formal research presentation on its historical foundation and development as a treatment model. The purpose of this research presentation is to further your knowledge and familiarity with family practice models. Your Power Point must be referenced and include the following elements:

Slide 1: Title Slide
Slides 2-3:The history and development of the treatment approach
Slides 4-5:The central ideas of the treatment approach
Slides 6-7: An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the approach when used with families AND couples
Slides 8-9: A discussion of the goals and evaluation of expected outcomes from this treatment approach when used with families AND couples
Slides 10-11:Ethical issues implicit in the approach or its application in practice
Slide 12: References
Please note: All references must be professional references published within the last nine (9 years). Dictionaries and Wikipedia do not count as references.

The text book for my class is called Family Therapy Concepts and Methods 11 edition Michael P. Nichols

Reflect on the case studies reviewed from the course. Write a 3-5 page paper including the following requirements:

Reflect on the case studies reviewed from the course. Write a 3-5 page paper including the following requirements:

Describe the importance of ERM usage in organizations. Did you learn something new or was your thinking challenged based on articles and the textbook ?
What are critical factors to consider in organizations prior to implementing an ERM?
How often should ERM strategies and processes be modified after implementation?
What was your favorite case study reviewed on ERM? Which one was your least favorite and why?
Do you plan to go into a career involving ERM? If so what is your ideal job role. If not what would you like to do in the future over the next 5 years?
In your paper include:

Title Page
Reference Page with 2-4 references


Need three pages with APA format.

write a summary of a recent news article . In the summary identify the title of the article, author and why the article is important.

write a summary of a recent news article . In the summary identify the title of the article, author and why the article is important. The summary needs to be a developed paragraph in length. Both in-text citations and a works cited entry are required. The news article summary should be submitted via EAGLE ONLINE. You may do more than one summary.

Social Work Ethics Audits in Health Care Settings: A Case Study


Social Work Ethics Audits in Health Care Settings: A Case Study

William J. Kirkpatrick, Frederic G. Reamer, and Marilyn Sykulski

In recent years social workers in health care set-tings have paid increased attention to ethicalissues and decision making. Along with mem- bers of allied health professions, social workers have enhanced their understanding of ethical challenges related to organ transplantation, the use of artificial organs, end-of-life decisions, genetic engineering, aggressive treatment of seriously impaired infants and frail elders, abortion, managed care, and the protection of participants in research protocols (Congress, 1998; Foster, 1995; Loewenberg & DolgofF, 1996; Reamer, 1985, 2006).

Most recently, various health care professions have begun to recognize the relevance of ethics “risk management” (Cohen-Almagor, 2000; Reamer, 2001a). Risk management is a concept that emerged in the 1960s; originally, the concept referred to efforts to minimize business-related losses resulting from accidents, theft, and negligence (Vaughan &Vaughan, 2000). Over time, risk man- agement has broadened in scope to include many other settings and contexts, including various health professions. A broad range of health agencies now pay considerable attention to steps they can take to minimize the likehhood of harm to clients and staff, prevent ethics complaints (filed with profes- sional associations and state licensing and regula- tory boards), and prevent lawsuits alleging some form of ethics-related neghgence (for example, conflicts of interest, inappropriate dual relationships or boundary violations, unethical delivery of ser- vices, mishandling of confidential information, and unethical termination of services (Barker & Branson, 2000; Houston-Vega & Nuehring, 1997; Reamer, 1998, 2003; Strom-Gottfried, 1999).

This article describes a practical strategy—the Social Work Ethics Audit—that promotes ethical practice in health settings and minimizes ethics- related risks.

THE SOCIAL WORK ETHICS AUDIT The Social Work Ethics Audit (SWEA) (Reamer, 2001b) provides social workers and their agencies with an easy-to-use tool to examine their ethics- related practices, policies, and procedures; ensure quality; and promote ethics-related risk manage- ment. SWEA provides social workers with a tool to help them identify pertinent ethical issues in their practice settings, review and assess the adequacy of their current practices, design a practical strategy to modify current practices as needed, and monitor the implementation of this quality assurance strat- egy. The audit is especially useful to administrators whose agencies seek accreditation and to supervi- sors who want to structure their ethics-related dis- cussions with supervisees.

SWEA includes a structured instrument and protocol that facilitate this comprehensive assess- ment. The audit focuses on specific ethical risks found in human services settings: client rights, con- fidentiality and privacy, informed consent, high- risk interventions, boundary issues, conflicts of in- terest, documentation, defamation of character, client records, supervision, staff development and training, consultation and referral, fraud, termina- tion of services, practitioner impairment, and evalu- ation and research.

The ethics audit involves six key steps: (1) form an audit committee; (2) using the topical outline, identify specific ethics-related issues on which to focus; (3) gather forms, policies, regulations, and other documents required for the audit; (4) assess multiple topics in 16 discrete risk areas and assign a score on a four-point scale indicating no risk, mini- mal risk, moderate risk, or high risk; (5) develop a comprehensive, detailed “action plan” for each risk area that warrants attention, starting with high-risk areas; and (6) establish a mechanism to follow up on each task to ensure its completion and monitor

CCC Code: 0360-7283/06 $3.00 ©2006 National Association of Social Workers 225

its implementation. (SWEA is accompanied by a computer disk that facilitates the audit process.)

The assessment of each risk area is divided into two sections: policies and procedures. Relevant agency policies may be codified in formal agency documents or memorandums (for example, policy concerning confidentiality, informed consent, conflicts of interest, termination of services). Pro- cedures entail social workers’ actual handling of ethical issues and dilemmas.

An ethics audit was conducted in 2001—2002 at three health care settings that are part of a large hospital corporation affiliated with a medical school: (1) a large urban, tertiary care hospital (719 beds and 25 MSWs), (2) a community hospital (247 beds and 4 MSWs), and (3) a child and adolescent psy- chiatric hospital (60 beds and 17 MSWs) .The audit committee included the social work director and managers of the three sites.The social work direc- tor and managers reviewed numerous social work and hospital policy manuals related to delivery of services, human resources, medical records, and re- search. The director and managers also met with social work staffers to discuss diverse ethics-related risks. During the discussion, social workers raised a number of compelling ethical challenges. For ex- ample, one social worker expressed feeling at high risk in the area of nontraditional interventions and described a situation in which a patient specifically requested that the social worker not reveal her use of herbal therapy to the physician for fear of rejec- tion or disapproval.Another social worker disclosed that she discovered two file drawers of notes and “shadow” records that had been maintained by a former social worker who had worked with pa- tients in the early days of HIV/AIDS. The former social worker had been concerned about placing certain information about patients’ HIV status in the official medical record, fearing that this sensi- tive information would be accessible by others. Maintaining a separate file addressed this need at that time, but over time the files were forgotten about.

Although the results among the three hospitals differed, the overall pattern was similar. Relatively few ethical issues were considered high risk (5 per- cent) or moderate risk (7 percent). A larger number were considered minimal risk (20 percent) and about two-thirds were assessed as no risk (67 percent). The most significant risks were related to policies and procedures concerning informed consent (for

example, providing interpreter and translation ser- vices for non-English-speaking patients); handling of confidential information (for example, disclo- sure of a patient’s substance abuse history to hospi- tal staff without patient consent; disclosure of sen- sitive information to managed care organizations); maintenance of proper boundaries with patients (for example, developing friendships with patients); patients’ use of nontraditional interventions (for example, patients’ use of herbal remedies); supervi- sion of staff (for example, frequency, quality, and documentation of supervision); staff consultation (for example, when and how to obtain consulta- tion); screening of community-based specialists for patient referral; monitoring the quality of care provided by community-based providers; and docu- menting ethical decisions.

Analysis of the audit results revealed four pat- terns or permutations with regard to ethics-related pohcies and procedures relevant to social work: (1) strong policies and strong procedures, (2) strong policies and weak procedures, (3) weak policies and strong procedures, and (4) weak policies and weak procedures.The audit tool calls for development of a detailed action plan for each ethics audit topic that especially warrants attention (moderate- and high-risk items in categories 2 through 4). Because the audit was conducted at three sites, some ele- ments of the action plan were similar across institu- tions and some varied.

Social work directors and managers identified a number of areas where existing policies were not consistent with hospital policies or prevailing so- cial work ethics standards. During a meeting to discuss audit results, staff also identified areas where policies needed to be created or revised signifi- cantly and substantive areas where staff training was needed. After the debriefing session the commit- tee formulated specific action steps. The first goal was to focus on the audit topics that were rated as moderate- and high-risk areas. For example, al- though supervision is well understood by the pro- fession of social work and integrated into depart- mental activity, it is not well understood among other hospital staff. As the literature suggests, eth- ics complaints and lawsuits involving social work- ers sometimes claim that flawed supervision con- tributed to the ethics-related negligence (Houston-Vega & Nuehring, 1997; Reamer, 2003). Even though the staff rated the practice of supervision as strong, the lack of a clear policy on

2 2 6 Health & Social Work VOLUME 31, NUMBER 3 AUGUST 2006

supervision (for example, format, frequency, and documentation) resulted in this section on policy being rated as high risk. Therefore a new pohcy defining the purpose, functions, and parameters of supervision was created. Another policy was writ- ten to address some of the other areas of moderate and high risk in terms of policy, for example, boundaries and conflicts of interest.This new policy is based on guidelines in the NASW Code of Ethics (2000). (Figure 1 summarizes the comprehensive action plan.)

IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE The primary purpose of the ethics audit conducted in social work departments in three different hos- pitals was to assess the adequacy of practitioners’ and administrators’ ethics-related policies and pro- cedures.The audit identified a number of key areas where hospital social workers needed to revise ex- isting policies and procedures or create new poli- cies.The audit process provided administrators and staff with a valuable, productive opportunity to examine their policies and practices, identify risk areas, and develop an assertive and constructive strategy to enhance their handling of ethical issues.

During the audit process, the audit committee quickly discovered that it would need to distin- guish between ethical issues that were unique to the social work departments—and over which the auditors have considerable control—and ethical is- sues that involve other hospital departments. For example, social work departments can assess and, where necessary, modify the procedures its staff members use to screen community-based referrals and maintain proper boundaries with patients and former patients. However, social work auditors may have less control over hospitalwide policies and procedures related to the documentation of inter-

departmental consultation, potential confiicts of interest among staff in various hospital departments, and the division of responsibility among depart- ments for revision of informed consent documents and procedures.

This feature of hospital-based social work dis- tinguishes it from social work practiced in a variety of other settings where the profession has more autonomy. For example, social workers who con- duct an ethics audit in a family services agency or mental health center may be able to exercise more autonomy and control over the audit process and the action steps that are warranted once the audit is completed. In light of this important distinction, social workers in hospital settings would be wise to keep several lessons in mind as they embark on an ethics audit:

• Social workers should involve key represen- tatives of all relevant hospital departments (for example, nursing, risk management, and le- gal) in the design and implementation of the ethics audit. Early and active involvement in the process can enhance hospital staff mem- bers’ investment in the audit results.

• The audit committee should look for ways to draw on the results of the ethics audit to make constructive changes within the social w ôrk department and elsewhere in the hos- pital. Efforts to make changes in other hospi- tal departments should be pursued with keen awareness of relevant organizational dynam- ics, interdepartmental relationships, and po- litical considerations.

• The audit committee can sponsor educational events within the hospital to publicize its find- ings and enhance staff awareness of pertinent ethical issues. For example, once this audit

Figure 1: Comprehensive Systemwide Action Plan Revise or create policies based onjresults of audit (for example, confidentiality, supervision, boundaries, and conflicts of interest).

Add ethics audit follow-up to monthly stafF meeting agenda, and report progress in minutes.

Include specific action items from audit in manager’s annual performance goals.

Include results, actions, and follow-up in departmental annual report.

OfFer audit process as an in-service for other departments, grand rounds, articles in hospital newsletters, and so forth.

Use as preparation for the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations survey and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliance efforts.

Present audit results and actions to the hospital Ethics Committee and to the Risk Management Department.

Use in design of future educational and staff development programs (CEU programs).

KIRKPATRICK, REAMER, AND SYKULSKI / Social Work Ethics Audits in Health Care Settings: A Case Study 117

process was completed, the audit committee sponsored hospitaiwide ethics grand rounds to address a wide range of issues concerning professional boundaries and conflicts of in- terest within the hospital. Continuing edu- cation credits were offered as an incentive for staff to attend (the audience was “standing room only”).

• The audit committee must decide whether to have individual staff complete the audit instrument and then collate all ofthe results or, instead, gather all of the pertinent infor- mation from staff—through interviews, fo- cus groups, or surveys—and review hospital documents to assign risk levels for each eth- ics topic. Both approaches are defensible. Having staffers complete the audit instrument individually is labor intensive and challeng- ing logistically; however, this approach can yield valuable detailed assessments from those practitioners who encounter ethical issues daily.

• The audit committee must decide whether to conduct the audit itself, using hospital staff and resources, or retain an outside consult- ant. Use of an outside consultant can enhance neutrality and defuse the organizational poli- tics that can dilute the effect of an audit. However, this strategy can add expenses and logistical steps.

• Conducting an ethics audit provides social work departments with visibility in their host settings and an opportunity to assert leader- ship with respect to ethical issues. In addition to the substantive insights and changes that the audit can produce, the process can help showcase social work’s commitment to pro- fessional ethics and ability to enhance their agencies’ efforts to address ethical issues.

The health care professions, as a group, have be- come much more aware of ethical issues that are germane to practice.What was once fairly superfi- cial acknowledgment of ethical issues in health care has evolved into much more ambitious attempts to identify and address a wide range of issues related to ethical dilemmas, ethical decision making, and ethics-related risk management. By virtue of their generaiist approach to practice, social workers in health care settings are in a unique position to con- duct comprehensive assessments of ethical issues

related to individual patients, families, staff, and employing organizations. Ultimately, such efforts can help health care organizations fulfill their com- mitment to helping people in need,

REFERENCES Barker, R. L., & Branson, D. M. (2000). Forensic social

work: Legal aspects of professional practice (2nd ed.). NewYork: Haworth Press.

Cohen-Almagor, R. (Ed.). (2000). Medical ethics at the dawn ofthe 21st century. NewYork: NewYork Academy of Sciences.

Congress, E. P. (1998). Social work values and ethics: Identifying and resolving professional dilemmas. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

Foster, L.W. (1995). Bioethicat issues. In R. L. Edwards (Ed.-in-Chief), Encyclopedia of social work (19th ed.. Vol. 1, pp. 292-298).Washington, DC: NASW Press.

Houston-Vega, M. K., & Nuehring, E. M. (with Daguio, E. R.). (1997). Prudent practice: A guide for managing malpractice risk. Washington, DC: NASW Press.

Loewenberg, F. M., & Dolgoff, R. (1996). Ethical decisions for social work practice (5th ed.). Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock.

National Association of Social Workers. (2000). Code of ethics ofthe National Association of Social Workers. Washington, DC: Author.

Reamer, F. G. (1985).The emergence of bioethics in social work. Health & Social Work, 10, 271-281.

Reamer, F G. (1998). Ethical standards in social work:A review ofthe NASW code of ethics. Washington, DC: NASW Press.

Reamer, F. G. (2001a). Ethics education in social work. Alexandria, VA: Council on Social Work Education.

Reamer, F. G. (2001b). The social work ethics audit:A risk management tool. Washington, DC: NASW Press.

Reamer, F. G. (2003). Social work malpractice and liabiUty (2nd ed.). NewYork: Columbia University Press.

Reamer, F. G. (2006). Social work values and ethics (3rd ed.). NewYork: Columbia University Press.

Strom-Gottfried, K. (1999). Professional boundaries: An analysis of violations by social workers. Families in Society, 80, 439-449.

Vaughan, E. J., &Vaughan,T. M. (2000). Essentials of risk management and insurance (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

William J. Kirkpatrick, AfSWf is director. Department of Clinical Social Work, Rhode Island Hospital, 593 Eddy Street, Providence, RI 02903; e-mail: u’kirkpat@ Frederic G. Reamer, PhD, is professor. School of Social Work, Rhode Island College, Providence. Marilyn Sykulski, MSVi{LICSlif is manager, clinical social work, Emma Pendleton Bradley Hospital, East Providence, Rl.An earlier version of this article was presented at the 37th annual meeting and conference ofthe Society for Social Work Leadership in Health Care, April 2002, Albuquerque, NM.

Original manuscript received January 2, 2003 Final revision received September 10, 2003 Accepted October 28. 2003

228 Health dr Social Work VOLUME 31, NUMBER 3 AUGUST 2006

Data Analysis And Visualizing

Practical Assignment (200 Points)

Date: _________________

Name: _____________________


Read and perform the required exercises. This will help you complete the assignment.

This url list the popular data visualization tools separated into 2 categories: (1) Tools for developers requiring coding and (2) Tools for non-developers that do not require coding. Read and familiarize yourself with the different categories of tools.

This website provides a comprehensive guide to learn Data Visualization using R. Not only should you read the content, I encourage you to read to perform the exercise to familiarize yourself to the R tool. This will help with the Assignment.


1. Data Acquisition [10 points]

a. After completing the prerequisite identified above, select a data mining project. This could be a based on the dataset you identified before.

b. Identify the dataset and load and store to your computer.

c. Briefly describe the data acquisition process.

2. Collect Method [10 points]

a. Describe the data collect method.

3. Data Examination [10 points]

a. Examine the dataset and briefly explain your findings

4. Data Transformation [20 points]

a. Perform data transformation techniques such as data cleansing, conversion, creation, and consolidation on the dataset.

b. Record the transformation activities you performed on your dataset.

5. Data Exploration and Presentation [50 points]

a. Decide how you want to present the data. Use the Charts in chapter 6 to help.

b. Using R tool to create the chart of your choice.


Word file with following:

· Describing the data acquisition

· Collection method

· Data examination process

· Data transformation required

· Chart figure

For this reader response you will need to read: “Letter From Birmingham Jail” (page 699)

For this reader response you will need to read:

“Letter From Birmingham Jail” (page 699)

“A Call for Unity” (page 698)

“I Have a Dream” (page 658)

If you do not have a textbook you may find the readings here by clicking on the links:

“I Have a Dream”

“A Call for Unity” with background information

“Letter From Birmingham Jail”

Take notes over what you read. Take time to highlight and annotate the text as this is how you gather evidence to support your ideas.

Next, write a developed response of at least 200 words that discusses King’s style and tone as seen in these works (you must discuss at least two of the works in your response). Your response should have a strong topic sentence and be organized. Include at least one short quote as evidence in your response. Work to include other examples as evidence in the response. Both in-text documentation and a works cited page are needed.

Learning Objectives:

Write in a style that clearly communicates meaning, builds credibility, and inspires belief or action.
Apply the conventions of style manuals for specific academic disciplines (e. g., APA, CMS, MLA, etc.