HEA page 504 Assignment exercise 21-1

Cost of owning and cost of leasing tables are reproduced below. Required Using the appropriate table from the Chapter 12 Appendices, record the present-value factor at 10% for each year and compute the present-value cost of owning and the present value of leasing. Which alternative is more desirable at this interest rate? Do you think your answer would change if the interest rate was 6% instead of 10%? Cost of Owning: Anywhere Clinic—Comparative Present Value For-Profit Cost of Owning: Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Net Cash Flow (48,750) 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 5,000 Present-value factor Present-value answers 5 Present-value cost of owning 5 Cost of Leasing: Anywhere Clinic—Comparative Present Value Line For-Profit Cost # of Leasing: Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 19 Net Cash Flow (8,250) (8,250) (8,250) (8,250) (8,250) —- 20 Present-value factor 21 Present-value answers 5 22 Present-value cost of leasing

The Impact of Technology on Learning

Concept Paper
Class-wide Peer Tutoring Program with Middle School Students with Disabilities
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
by
Scott Dryer
CUR 526 – CRN 33392
Educational Research for Practitioners
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A Concept Paper submitted to the faculty of the
Fischler School of Education & Human Services of NOVA Southeastern University
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Educational Leadership
Master’s of Science
February 2010
 
 
Authorship/Document Release
Authorship Statement
I hereby testify that this paper and the work it reports are entirely my own.  When it has been necessary to draw from the work of others, published or unpublished, I have acknowledged such work in accordance with accepted scholarly and editorial practice.  I give the testimony freely, out of respect for the scholarship of the other professionals in the field and in the hope that my own work, presented here, will earn similar respect
 
________________________________________ student signature
 
 
 
Table of Contents
Chapters                                                                                                                                      Page

  1. Purpose…………………………………………………………………………………….5
    1. Background………………………………………………………………………..5
    2. Discrepancy Statement…………………………………………………………….6
    3. Goal Statement…………………………………………………………………….6
  2. Literature Review………………………………………………………………………….7
  3. Methods…………………………………………………………………………………..17
    1. Outcome Objectives………………………………………………………………17
    2. Description of Activities…………………………………………………………18
    3. Implementation Matrix…………………………………………………………..21
  4. Evaluation Plan…………………………………………………………………………..27

References………………………………………………………………………………………..28
Appendix A:  Target Reading Class Baseline Scores……………………………………………31
 
 
Abstract
Concept Paper: Class-wide Peer Tutoring Program with Middle School Students with Disabilities
Dryer, Scott, 2010. Concept Paper, Nova Southeastern University, Fischler Graduate School of Education.
Descriptors: Middle School students with disabilities/at risk readers/well below grade level/resource classroom/Class-wide Peer Tutoring.
A concept for a seven week program was developed to aid students with disabilities, all with documented histories of reading difficulties, all with current Individualized Education Plans, and all with appropriate reading goals.  The objectives of the program were to assess the needs of the students in a target reading resource class.  Pair the students into peer tutoring groups of two or three for the length of the study, guide the students in the process of Class-wide Peer Tutoring(CWPT), and complete a final assessment of the results of CWPT.
The target group of students is enrolled in a back to back reading and language arts resource class to address specific needs to improve skill deficits in both subjects.  The aim of the program is to improve students’ reading levels to meet grade level requirements as measured by state wide assessments.  An appendix gives baseline data of a target group of students.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chapter 1: Purpose
Background
I work at a middle school in suburban area.  The school district is located in the middle of a southeastern state.  The district is made of a variety of areas to include inner-city, urban, suburban and rural.  The part of the district where my school is located also has a high population of migrant students.  That area surrounding the school is made up primarily of single family homes that have been built within the last ten years.  The school has been open for eight years to date.  The school has approximately 1,100 students.  The breakdown of the student body is as follows: 60.6% are Caucasian, 18.7% are Hispanic, 11.6% are Black, 5.7% are Multi-racial, 3% are Asian, and .4% are Indian.  The special categories of the student population are as follows: 12.8% are Students with Disabilities (SWD), 14.3% are gifted, and 29.2% are Economically Disadvantaged.  The school serves grades six through eight.
The population targeted for this project is seventh and eighth grade students with disabilities.  The school has approximately 80 classrooms in six buildings.  The students have six classes per day and have to move from building to building in order to get make it from one class to the next.  SWD’s are mainstreamed for most if not all of their classes, with some exceptions.  The students in need of more intense services for core academic subjects have classes in the building nearest to the main office of the school.  The subjects taught in these classes include resource settings for Intensive Reading, Language Arts, and Math.  There is also one self-contained varying exceptionalities classroom that services all academic needs of low level learning disabled students and intellectually disabled students.  The students in the target class are taught in back to back resource classes for reading and language arts are in grades seven and eight.
Discrepancy Statement
            Students with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) and Intellectual Disabilities (ID) in the target reading resource classroom must be at a level 3 in reading achievement, as measured on statewide reading assessments, and have a lexile score between 1,050 and 1,100, as measured on Florida Assessment for Instruction in Reading (FAIR) Testing in order to be considered on grade level.  All students in the target reading resource class are reading well below grade level with statewide reading scores of level 1 and a beginning mean FAIR Test score of 754 (n=13).
Problem Statement
SLD and ID students are all indentified as students with disabilities, as defined by state and federal guidelines, all have current individualized education plans, all have appropriate reading goals and objectives, and are all in need of more intensive services and a smaller class setting in order to increase their reading achievement levels.  Finally, the target students all have a documented history of reading difficulties.  All students are level 1 reader’s, on a scale of 1 to 5 where 3 is considered average, and most have FAIR test results that are deemed well below average as compared with same grade peers.
The goal for the target students is to improve their reading levels to a level 3 or higher on state testing and attain a lexile score from 1,050 to 1,100 as measured on FAIR Testing.
 
Chapter 2: Literature Review
“The data from the National Assessment in Reading Progress indicate that unless something is done to dramatically improve the reading skills of the nation’s students, nearly one quarter of them will graduate from high school with insufficient reading skills (Veerkamp, Kamps & Cooper, 2007, p. 25).”  Mary Beth Calhoon (2005) states: “Reading is a fundamental skill on which academic success, secure employment, and personal autonomy depend (p. 424).”  The skill of being an effective reader is especially important to middle school students if they intend on being academically successful in all subjects of the middle school curriculum. Many of the classes that a middle school student encounters require a level of reading that far exceeds what the students experience in elementary grades.   The previous statement goes along with what Paige (2006) states, “The premium of fluent reading rises dramatically in middle school with the increased demands of content area reading (p. 168).”  When a struggling reader encounters the increased demands of middle school content area reading, the readers often takes much longer to complete assignments, becomes increasingly frustrated with his/her efforts not leading to success and finally resistant to continue with further efforts in his/her studies (as cited by Paige, 2006).  According to McCray (as cited by Calhoon, 2005), “21% of girls and 31% of boys” in middle grades do not have the ability to read at even a “basic literacy level (p. 424).” This fact is especially true for students with disabilities (SWD).
In review of research, Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E. & Graetz, J. E. (2003) discusses the many hurdles faced by students with reading deficiencies and educators in, “Reading comprehension instruction for secondary students: challenges for struggling students and teachers (pp. 103-16).”  Mastropieri, et al. (2003) mentions struggles faced by below level readers.  The first struggle is the student’s ability versus the difficulty of the text being faced in middle and high school.  The next struggle is the variety of organizational methods used in the different content area texts.   This problem is magnified by the physical size of most of the texts used.  The students are further subjected to stress by the speed at which the material is typically presented by content area teachers.  Along with the speed the material is presented, the students are faced with an ever increasing workload as their schooling progresses.  When the students are frustrated with the ever increasing stress of their school workload, the teachers also feel the pain and bewilderment of below average, incomplete and not completed work.  The assessment grades of the lower achieving students directly correlate with poor quality of work submitted to the teacher (2003).  Mastropieri et al. states, “research syntheses provide direct evidence that specific interventions in reading comprehension have produced significant positive outcomes for students with learning disabilities (p.105).”  Mastropieri et al. also cites several strategies that have been proven to benefit students with disabilities in the article.  Some of these strategies include, but are not limited to: one-on-one instruction, elaboration, monitoring, task breakdown, model of skills, corrective feedback, use of prior knowledge, and metacognition, just to name a few (2003).  Although limited studies have been completed with middle and high school students, Mastropieri et al. states that the proper use of peer-tutoring for students with disabilities in specific content areas, such as science and social studies, has been found to be extremely valuable when teacher attitudes towards the use of peer tutoring are positive (2003).  Mastropieri et al. gives several ideas in the summary and conclusions section.  Specific interventions such as comprehension and summarization strategies, peer mediation and intensity of instruction are suggested to have positive results for students with disabilities when implemented properly and consistently by the educator (2003).  Along with strategies needed for students with disabilities, specific deficit areas must be studied in order to aid in further reading achievement.
Hock, M. F., Brasseur, I. F., Deschler, D. D., Catts, H. W., Marquis, J. G., Mark, C. A. & Stribling, J. W. (2009) discusses and provides result of a study titled, “What is the reading component skill profile of adolescent struggling readers in urban schools (pp. 21-38)?”  Hock et al. studied 345 students to gain knowledge of specific areas of deficit for struggling readers.  The goal of the study was to discover if and what the differences are between students with disabilities and proficient readers in the areas of: word level, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension (2009).  The 345 participants were divided into reading categories ranging from unsatisfactory to exemplary (2009).  Of the 345 students involved in the study, 35 were students with disabilities (2009).  The results of the study show that struggling readers including learning disabled students score between 20 and 25 points below the mean (standard score of 100) when compared with students found to be proficient readers (scoring 96 or higher) in all four areas central to the study (2009).
In a three year study conducted by Kamps, D. M., Greenwood, C., Arreage-Mayer, C., Veerkamp, M. B., Utley, C., Tapia, Y., Bowman-Perrott, L. & Bannister, H. (2008) in the Kansas City Metropolitan area, Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) was found to have an overall effect of substantially increasing favorable reading behaviors in middle school students, including SWD’s, and drastically decreased the amounts of competing behaviors (off task behaviors) when compared with teacher led instructional practices (2008).  “CWPT enables general educators to meet the instructional needs of a broad range of students by organizing them in dyads during a portion of the weekly instruction (2008, p. 120).”  Several distinct advantages to CWPT are present (as cited by Kamps et al.), such as, ease of differentiating instruction, immediate, student-based corrective feedback, dramatic and class-wide increases in on task behavior, rapid comprehension increases for all students including SWD’s, greater satisfaction with learning, skills other than just reading are able to be taught simultaneously, and costs are kept to a minimum (2008).  Gains are increased even further when a simple lottery system is incorporated to encourage a reduction in competing behaviors (Kamps, et al., 2008; Veerkamp, Kamps & Cooper, 2007) Kamps et al. states, in the three year study, student gains not only occurred in the area of pure reading instruction but also in the content areas of social studies and science (2008).  Kamps et al. goes onto state that the use of CWPT showed promising results in urban and suburban areas, across all academic levels including SWD’s and with English Language Learning (ELL) students (2008).  A wide-spread use of CWPT may enable more use of heterogeneous classes, i.e. high, medium and low level readers in the same reading classes.  This would be the opposite of most of today’s models of current reading classrooms where high level students are grouped together in reading classes, mid-level students are together, and low level students are grouped into homogeneous classes.
A different but also important study dealing with tutoring and reading achievement was conducted by Osborn, J., Freeman, A., Burley, M., Wilson, R., Jones, E. & Rychener, S. (2007) titled, “Effect of tutoring on reading achievement for students with cognitive disabilities, specific learning disabilities, and students receiving title I services (pp. 467-74).”  Although the study dealt with elementary students, the results and recommendations are very promising for use with middle school students in the same demographic areas listed in the title of the article.  The participants in the study were forty-three elementary schools in the state of Ohio in small and/or rural areas.  Most of the schools involved were evaluated and found to be effective by state standards.  The racial breakdown of the area showed that more than three quarters of the students were Caucasian, with the rest being about evenly split between African American, Multi-racial and Asian American.  Also noted by the Osborn et al., 15% of the population was students with disabilities (2007).  There were 21 schools chosen for the study that would be the comparison group.  The racial breakdown and percentage of students with disabilities of the comparison schools was virtually the same (2007).  A total of 90 students in both groups, all students with disabilities, participated in the study.  The average age of the students in the study was eight years six months.  All students in the study also had substantial discrepancies between grade level achievement and IQ test results (2007).  The tutors involved in the study consisted of any high age or older person from the school community that was willing to participate in the training and commit to participation for the length of the study (2007).  The design of the tutoring was one tutor, one student.  The tutors were trained and received feedback during the entire study period.  After the reading level of the students was attained, lesson plans were designed for use with the students.  Pre and post-tests were given to the students and progress records were kept during the course of the study.  Tutoring sessions were held several days each week and lasted a half hour.  The sessions were held on the school campus.  The first part of each session consisted of a reading activity followed by class related spelling and vocabulary, and finally with strategies for the specific student (2007).  The materials used with the students were downloaded from Readinga-z.com.  This site enables tutors to retrieve materials and plans based on the students unique needs.  Several hundred tutoring units were developed for use with the students from the website (2007).  The pre and post-test measures were conducted by a team that went to each school (2007).  Osborn et al. states,”results of the intervention students were matched to the comparison group” and “demonstrated significant positive results for the intervention (p. 467).”  Limitations mentioned by Osborn et al. are: there was no random assignment during the study, and the comparison group used no “one-on-one reading tutoring (2007, p. 473).”  This type of a tutoring program is a very favorable option for struggling readers in middle school identified as students with disabilities.
Douglas Fisher (2001) takes a different approach and studies students with disabilities as the tutors for elementary students in his article titled, “Cross age tutoring: alternatives to the reading resource room for struggling adolescent readers (pp. 234-40).”  There were three schools used for the study, two middle schools with approximately 20 students each were used as a study and comparison groups, and a feeder elementary school located between the middle schools.  The students in the elementary school were in first and second grade classes (2001).  The middle school students in the study group used texts of interest to the elementary school students that increased in difficulty as time progressed.  The middle school students were instructed in tutoring methods and used teacher provided lesson plans.  Tutoring sessions were held two days per week and, on the off days, the middle school tutors wrote reflections of their experiences.  The middle school teacher would model further lessons to be used in the ongoing sessions.  The middle school teacher would also read texts that were above reading level for the middle school tutors in read-aloud sessions held each day during the study (2001).  The results of the study suggest that the tutors had an “authentic reason for literacy, regular feedback and modeling, and integration into the writing curriculum” resulting in benefits for the middle school students (2001, p. 234).  Though limitations were not discussed by Fisher, there are some logistical problems to be considered for use of a program of this nature.  First, finding an appropriate combination of schools presents a problem in most districts.  Time constraints for the implementation of the program are also factor due to the fact that most middle schools and elementary schools are on different daily schedules.  A third issue is a problem of transportation issues.  A final problem is one of funding because school districts may not be willing to pay for a program of this nature.
In study conducted by Sutherland and Snyder (2007), “the effects of reciprocal peer tutoring and self-graphing of reading data, active responding, and ready fluency” was completed with a group of students with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD) (p. 103).  The four students involved in the study were EBD and reading below grade level (2007).  This study of the use of reciprocal peer tutoring had three aims: “increase active responding, decreased disruptive behaviors, and an increase in ready fluency when compared to typical classroom instruction (p. 104).”  The students were all from the same middle school located in the southeastern United States and were all in the same self-contained classroom with a teacher and a teaching assistant (2007).  Using a variety of data sources, the four students were placed into pairs for the purposes of the research. A baseline of information was collected before the implementation of the program using typical instructional practices.  Baseline data included results from “curriculum-based measurements” on the target students (p.106).  The intervention used for the students involved three steps: “partner reading, paragraph shrinking and prediction relay activities (pp. 106-7).”  The results of the study demonstrated that half of the study participants had decreases in instances of disruptive behavior.  The two students that had no substantial difference in instances of disruptive did not exhibit problem behaviors during any part of the study.  By the end of the study, all students’ behavior had stabilized at acceptable levels.  However, levels of active responding to reading for all students increased noticeably from the baseline measures to the completion of the study (2007).  Data from the report shows that three of the four study participants were able to meet or exceed the goal set for them in the area of improvement of words read per minute (2007, figure 3).  The study also shows that during the intervention period of the study, all students showed decreases in errors per minute (2007, figure 4).  Sutherland and Snyder discussed limitations in the study such as: limited number of students involved, the study only dealing a single classroom of students, data was not collected consistently during the study and, most importantly, the intervention was also not implemented on a consistent basis throughout the study period (2007).
A different idea on how to improve reading achievement, specifically reading fluency, is proposed by David D. Paige (2006) in a paper he wrote dealing with, “Repeated reading utilizing above grade level reading passages (p. 167).”  Paige’s study dealt with improving “reading rate as measured in words per minute (wpm)” and a reduction in “reading miscues (p. 167).”  Paige’s study dealt specifically with middle school SWD’s (2006).  The mean reading percentile of the study group as measured on previous year’s state-wide assessments was 13th percentile, well below average (2006).  The findings of his study indicate that repeated reading of above grade level passages on a weekly basis increased overall reading fluency of the same passage an average of 32 words per minute and reduced reading miscues of the same passage by an average of approximately 2 words per passage (2006).  The majority of the students in the study group also showed gains in fluency on the pre-test/post-test instrument used as a baseline in Paige’s study (2006).  The students not showing fluency gains had very specific difficulties, one having mild mental retardation, one with decoding difficulties and the third would repeat entire sentences when miscues where made (2006).   Although limitations were discussed in the study, Paige points out two positive outcomes of the study.  The first being that repeated reading by the student, along with charting progress being made is “an effective strategy to help the disabled reader sharpen decoding skills and decrease miscues” and the teacher is able to recognize and correct specific decoding errors made by the student (p. 178).  Another possible benefit of the repeated reading of above grade level passages may be that the students using this strategy would be able to increase their reading comprehension skills as a result of seeing and learning to understand higher level words as they are used in context.  Repeated reading may also have a cyclical effect, in that the students continuously using this strategy over time may move onto higher reading levels in state-wide testing as a result of these positive experiences.  A final, important ancillary benefit may be an overall improvement of self image of the struggling reader. The struggling reader’s sense of success may change his/her attitude towards the task of reading.  The attitudes and emotions of the struggling must also be taken into account in order for tutoring to be successful.
Triplett (2004) discusses the emotions of the struggling reader in her article published in the Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy titled,”Looking for a struggle: Exploring the emotions of a middle school reader (pp. 214-22).”  In the article, Triple is involved in a case study dealing with one struggling reader, his mother and how his feelings toward the overall task of reading change as a result of a student centered approach to the tutoring process.  The case study would take place as tutoring sessions lasting for a one semester period (2004).  The parent involved in the study reported her son having difficulties with reading achievement resulting in her son being three grade levels behind where he should be for his current grade level.  She also reported that, due to his struggles; her son had become increasing frustrated with the task of reading (2004).  In the first session with the student, Triplet does not immediately perform typical assessments with the student.  She instead spends time at the beginning of the first session just getting to know the student and his mother.  The result of this was an improved feeling about the idea of receiving reading tutoring again.  After the initial getting to know one another, Triplett was able to begin assessing the abilities of the student (2004).  As the tutoring sessions progressed, the student’s feelings about the tutoring process improved.  The student was making the choice as to what was being used for the tutoring.  As a result of this, the tutoring sessions were much more enjoyable and entertaining for the student, Triplett and the mother (2004).  The progression of his skills resulting from the tutoring also generalized to his school situation.  The student began to have more successes in school, therefore improving his feelings about the process of learning in the school setting (2004).  The student in Triplett’s case study expressed feelings of inadequacy because he never was able to attain any accolades due to his struggles with reading; in the school setting.  The student also showed empathy for other students that were struggling with reading at the same time because they were experiencing the same results of not attaining certain levels in the school reading program.  The student’s feelings of inadequacy were perpetuated further when results of his efforts, along with all others in his class, were placed on public display for all to see and understand that his reading level was well below that of his classmates.  The student’s reading achievement was posted on the same chart in the classroom as all of the other students (2004).  Triplett found that her relationship with the student improved as sessions progressed throughout the semester she worked with the student in the case study.  Triplett would start each session with a discussion that helped Triplett and the student to catch up on what had happened to each other since they had last met (2004).  Triplett also noted some ideas that contributed to the success of the study: finding books of interest to the student to be used in the session along with articles that were based on the student’s interests such as soccer and fishing (2004).  Though the case study detailed by Triplett was a success, there is one major limitation.  The study only involved one student.  A study of this nature needs to be repeated using a larger sample in order to verify Triplett’s results.
 
 
Chapter 3: Methods
Discrepancy Statement
            Students with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) and Intellectual Disabilities (ID) in the target reading resource classroom must be at a level 3 in reading achievement, as measured on statewide reading assessments, and have a lexile score between 1,050 and 1,100, as measured on Florida Assessment for Instruction in Reading (FAIR) Testing in order to be considered on grade level.  All students in the target reading resource class are reading well below grade level with statewide reading scores of level 1 and a beginning mean FAIR Test score of 754 (n=13).
Outcome Objectives
The problem addressed by the following implementation plan is SLD and ID students are all indentified as students with disabilities, as defined by state and federal guidelines, all have current individualized education plans, all have appropriate reading goals and objectives, and are all in need of more intensive services and a smaller class setting in order to increase their reading achievement levels.  Finally, the target students all have a documented history of reading difficulties.  Mary Beth Calhoon (2005) states: “Reading is a fundamental skill on which academic success, secure employment, and personal autonomy depend (p. 424).”  The skill of being an effective reader is especially important to middle school students if they intend on being academically successful in all subjects of the middle school curriculum. Paige (2006) states, “The premium of fluent reading rises dramatically in middle school with the increased demands of content area reading (p. 168).”  Many of the classes that a middle school student encounters require a level of reading that far exceeds what the students experience in elementary grades.
The goal for the target students is to improve their reading levels to a level 3 or higher on state testing and attain a lexile score from 1,050 to 1,100 as measured on FAIR Testing.  A second goal, ancillary benefit, is to reduce competing (off task) behaviors in the target class. A final result of the study may be an increase in positive attitudes towards the task of reading instruction.  The main objective for the students is to participate in a Class-wide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) sessions.
Description of Activities
In a CWPT Program, the students are paired into cooperative groups of two or three.  The students complete paired reading assignments using the same text that are appropriate to the students’ interest and abilities.  One student reads to the other for a given amount of time and then the roles are reversed.  The students complete the process for 15 to 20 minutes in each session.  During this time, the students are also making comments to each other about the text and peer encouragement.  After the completion of the reading activities, the students will write in their composition books to cover two topics.  The first topic is a summary or reflection of the reading.  The second topic is a reflection of the tutoring session.
Before the students start the CWPT sessions, they complete interest inventories for the teacher to use in order to assemble needed materials for use.  The study period lasts five weeks.  The students will be instructed on the proper procedures to follow during the sessions.  The procedures will be reinforced by the teacher each session during the length of the study.  The students will also be using composition books to produce written samples dealing with the text and their reflections each session.
CWPT sessions take place two to three days per week and are interspersed with normal classroom instruction.  During the sessions, the classroom teacher will conduct observations on the students, correcting student procedures, making needed changes to student pairings for the first two weeks of the study, conduct interviews with students to assess attitudes during the study period, and finally make anecdotal records of competing behaviors.
Goals

  1. To increase student reading achievement scores to a level 3 (scores ranging from 1 to 5, where 3 is considered to be on grade level) or higher as measured on state-wide assessments of reading.
  2. To increase student lexile scores from a mean score of 754 to a range between 1050 and 1100 as measured on FAIR Testing.
  3. To reduce competing (off task) behaviors in the study group during reading instruction.

Objectives

  1. Students will participate in teacher led CWPT for a period of 4 weeks to increase reading levels (see goals 1 and 2 above).
  2. Students will participate in FAIR Testing in order to assess reading gains.
  3. Students will complete state-wide assessment in reading to assess reading achievement.
  4. Teacher will facilitate CWPT during the four week study period.
  5. Teacher will maintain records of observations and interviews to assess and report on study results and student progress.
  6. Teacher will keep anecdotal records of competing behaviors.
  7. Teacher will produce final report of study group results to includes results of FAIR and state-wide assessments.

 
 
 
Implementation Matrix

Weeks Teacher Tasks Materials Teaching Strategies (What will the teacher do?) Learning Activities (What will the students do?) Evaluation Strategies
Week 1:              Prior to Implementation –  Information gathering of student data from State-wide assessments and FAIR Testing. Assemble results of Statewide Assessment and FAIR Testing Desktop computer, printer, paper, and student data results sheets. Compile Testing and Assessment Data on students. Complete reading interest inventories with students in target group. Students will complete reading interest inventories as a self assessment measure. Place all data results onto an Excel Spreadsheet for each of use.   Compile results of interest inventories in order to gather needed reading materials for CWPT.
Week 2: Objective #2 Implementation of CWPT Program with target student class Gather needed materials for the CWPT and begin instruction on procedures for CWPT. Variety of text types based on student interest and reading levels.  Class set of composition books to be used for student writing of summaries and reflections. Instruct classes on procedures of CWPT. Place students in pairings for the CWPT.  Distribution of student composition books and reading materials for use during CWPT study period.  Teacher will keep anecdotal records of student behaviors and reading attitutes. Rehearsal of procedures for CWPT and beginning of CWPT. Students will complete initial writings in composition books. Teacher observations and corrections of procedures with students.  Teacher interviews of students to assess initial attitudes on in class reading instruction. Anecdotal record keeping to measure levels of competing behaviors.
Week 3: Objective #2 Implementation of CWPT Program with target student class. Continue to gather materials for student use in class. Assemble needed record keeping materials. Variety of text types based on student interest and reading levels.  Class set of composition books to be used for student writing of summaries and reflections. Continue to monitor students during tutoring sesssions.  Make adjustments to student pairings as needed to improve the tutoring experience.  Ensure student completion of written assignments coinciding with tutoring program.  Continue with anecdotal records of behaviors and attitudes.  Make changes to the text being used with the student pairings based on student needs. Students get into tutoring pairs, assemble needed materials and continue with CWPT. Teacher observations and corrections of procedures with students.  Changes to students pairing as needed based upon behavioral observations.  Teacher interviews of students to assess and measure changes in student  attitudes during CWPT.  Anecdotal record keeping to measure levels of competing behaviors.  Assess written samples in composition books to assess needs for further instruction based.
Week 4: Objective #2 Implementation of CWPT Program with target student class Continue to gather materials for student use in class. Assemble needed record keeping materials. Variety of text types based on student interest and reading levels.  Class set of composition books to be used for student writing of summaries and reflections. Continue to monitor students during tutoring sesssions.  Ensure student completion of written assignments coinciding with tutoring program.  Continue with anecdotal records of behaviors and attitudes.  Make changes to the text being used with the student pairings based on student needs. Students get into tutoring pairs, assemble needed materials and continue with CWPT. Teacher observations and corrections of procedures with students.   Teacher interviews of students to assess and measure changes in student  attitudes during CWPT.  Anecdotal record keeping to measure levels of competing behaviors.  Assess written samples in composition books to assess needs for further instruction based on student needs.
Week 5: Objective #2 Implementation of CWPT Program with target student class Continue to gather materials for student use in class. Assemble needed record keeping materials. Variety of text types based on student interest and reading levels.  Class set of composition books to be used for student writing of summaries and reflections. Continue to monitor students during tutoring sesssions.  Ensure student completion of written assignments coinciding with tutoring program.  Continue with anecdotal records of behaviors and attitudes.  Make changes to the text being used with the student pairings based on student needs. Students get into tutoring pairs, assemble needed materials and continue with CWPT. Teacher observations and corrections of procedures with students.  Teacher interviews of students to assess and measure changes in student  attitudes during CWPT.  Anecdotal record keeping to measure levels of competing behaviors.  Assess written samples in composition books to assess needs for further instruction based on student needs.
Week 6: Objective #3 Formal Measurement of student progress. Completion of FAIR Testing with students in target class. Computer lab Ensure that all students in the target class are proficient with the use of the FAIR test computer program.  Monitor student progress and correct problems during the administration of the computer based testing. Students will complete the FAIR test on an individual basis in the computer lab. Compile student results of FAIR testing.  Add results to Excel spreadsheet detailing student results.  Make needed comparisions to measure effectiveness of CWPT program.  Complete report detailing results of CWPT, student attitude changes, and student competing behaviors during study period.
Week 7: Objective #3 Formal Measurement of student progress. Completion of State-wide reading assessment Testing with students in target class. All Testing materials: test booklets, answer sheets, and pencils. Read testing instruction script to students before administering the assessment and re-read insrtuctions as needed during testing sessions. Completion of the state-wide reading assessement. Compile student results of state-wide testing.  Add results to Excel spreadsheet detailing student results.  Make needed comparisions to measure effectiveness of CWPT program.  Complete report detailing results of CWPT, student attitude changes, and student competing behaviors during study period.

 
 
Chapter 4: Evaluation Plan
The objectives for this proposed project are as follows:  Over a five week period, the students will attend their regularly scheduled reading resource classes.  The students will be paired into groups of two or three for the purposes of the Class-wide Peer Tutoring (CWPT).  The classroom teacher will complete observations of the students, complete interviews with the students on an individual basis, and keep anecdotal records of competing (off task) behaviors in the class.  The goals of the proposed study are to increase reading achievement levels in the target group, and to decrease levels of competing behaviors.
The evaluation of the study will be completed using two measures.  The first of these measures would be a final assessment of the FAIR Testing.  The second measure is the students’ completion of the state-wide assessment in reading.
The classroom teacher will complete a final report containing detailed results of interviews, anecdotal records and testing results to examine the overall effectiveness of the CWPT.
 
 
 
 
 
 
References
Calhoon, M. B. (September/October 2005). Effects of a peer-mediated phonological skill and reading comprehension program on reading skill acquisition for middle school students with reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities 38 (5), p. 424-33. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
“FCAT Achievement Levels.” Florida Department of Education. July 2008. FDOE, Web. 25 Jan 2010. Retrieved from http://fcat.fldoe.org/pdf/fcAchievementLevels.pdf
Fisher, D. (December 2001). Cross age tutoring: alternatives to the reading resource room for struggling adolescent readers. Journal of Instructional Psychology 28 (4), p. 234-40.  Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
Friedland, E. S. & Truscott, D. M. (April 2005). Building awareness and commitment of middle school students through literacy tutoring. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 48 (7), p. 550-62. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
Hock, M. F., Brasseur, I. F., Deschler, D. D., Catts, H. W., Marquis, J. G., Mark, C. A. & Stribling, J. W. (Winter 2009). What is the reading component skill profile of adolescent struggling readers in urban schools? Learning Disability Quarterly 32 (1), p. 21-38.  Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
Kamps, D. M., Greenwood, C., Arreage-Mayer, C., Veerkamp, M. B., Utley, C., Tapia, Y., Bowman-Perrott, L. & Bannister, H. (May 2008). The efficacy of classwide peer tutoring in middle schools. Education and Treatment of Children 31 (2), p. 119-52. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
“Lexile-Grade Coorespondence.” The Lexile Framework for Reading. 2010. MetaMetrics, Inc., Web. 23 Jan 2010.  Retrieved from                                                                              http://www.lexile.com/about-lexile/grade-equivalent/grade-equivalent-chart/
Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E. & Graetz, J. E. (Spring 2003). Reading comprehension instruction for secondary students: challenges for struggling students and teachers. Learning Disability Quarterly 26 (2), p. 103-16. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
Osborn, J., Freeman, A., Burley, M., Wilson, R., Jones, E. & Rychener, S. (December 2007). Effect of tutoring on reading achievement for students with cognitive disabilities, specific learning disabilities, and students receiving title I services. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities 42 (4), p. 467-74. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
Paige, D. D. (January/February 2006). Increasing fluency in disabled middle school readers: repeated reading utilizing above grade level reading passages. Reading Horizons 46 (3), p. 167-81. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
Sutherland, K. S. & Snyder, A. (Summer 2007). Effects of reciprocal peer tutoring and self-graphing on reading fluency and classroom behavior of middle school students with emotional or behavioral disorders. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15 (2), p. 103-18. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
Triplett, C. F. (November 2004). Looking for a struggle: exploring the emotions of a middle school reader. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 48 (3), p. 214-22. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
Veerkamp, M. B., Kamps, D. & Cooper, L. (May 2007). The effects of classwide peer tutoring on the reading achievement of urban middle school students. Education and Treatment of Children  30 (2), p. 21-51. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
 
 
Appendix A:  Target Reading Class Baseline Scores

Student Gr Gr Tested FCAT Level Scale Score Dev Scale Score Lexile Test 1 Lexile Test 2 Gender Ethnicity Eligibility Teacher
DC 7 6 1 208 1138 960 1120 Male White SLD P
ME 7 6 1 185 1010 220 745 Female Hispanic SLD P
GGR 7 6 1 215 1177 610 620 Male Hispanic SLD P
TL 7 6 1 262 1438 1080 1065 Male White SLD P
DH 8 7 1 252 1467 875 955 Male Black EMH P
SH 8 7 1 221 1305 530 955 Female White EMH P
HL 8 7 1 247 1441 855 925 Female White SLD P
LMD 8 7 1 100 671 1175 530 Female White SLD P
ANT 8 7 1 171 1043 530 530 Male Hispanic SLD P
TP 8 7 1 250 1457 925 1105 Male White SLD P
DW 8 7 1 147 917 530 805 Male Hispanic SLD P
Average Scores 205.3 1187.6 753.6 850.5

Concept Paper
Class-wide Peer Tutoring Program with Middle School Students with Disabilities
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
by
Scott Dryer
CUR 526 – CRN 33392
Educational Research for Practitioners
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A Concept Paper submitted to the faculty of the
Fischler School of Education & Human Services of NOVA Southeastern University
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Educational Leadership
Master’s of Science
February 2010
 
 
Authorship/Document Release
Authorship Statement
I hereby testify that this paper and the work it reports are entirely my own.  When it has been necessary to draw from the work of others, published or unpublished, I have acknowledged such work in accordance with accepted scholarly and editorial practice.  I give the testimony freely, out of respect for the scholarship of the other professionals in the field and in the hope that my own work, presented here, will earn similar respect
 
________________________________________ student signature
 
 
 
Table of Contents
Chapters                                                                                                                                      Page

  1. Purpose…………………………………………………………………………………….5
    1. Background………………………………………………………………………..5
    2. Discrepancy Statement…………………………………………………………….6
    3. Goal Statement…………………………………………………………………….6
  2. Literature Review………………………………………………………………………….7
  3. Methods…………………………………………………………………………………..17
    1. Outcome Objectives………………………………………………………………17
    2. Description of Activities…………………………………………………………18
    3. Implementation Matrix…………………………………………………………..21
  4. Evaluation Plan…………………………………………………………………………..27

References………………………………………………………………………………………..28
Appendix A:  Target Reading Class Baseline Scores……………………………………………31
 
 
Abstract
Concept Paper: Class-wide Peer Tutoring Program with Middle School Students with Disabilities
Dryer, Scott, 2010. Concept Paper, Nova Southeastern University, Fischler Graduate School of Education.
Descriptors: Middle School students with disabilities/at risk readers/well below grade level/resource classroom/Class-wide Peer Tutoring.
A concept for a seven week program was developed to aid students with disabilities, all with documented histories of reading difficulties, all with current Individualized Education Plans, and all with appropriate reading goals.  The objectives of the program were to assess the needs of the students in a target reading resource class.  Pair the students into peer tutoring groups of two or three for the length of the study, guide the students in the process of Class-wide Peer Tutoring(CWPT), and complete a final assessment of the results of CWPT.
The target group of students is enrolled in a back to back reading and language arts resource class to address specific needs to improve skill deficits in both subjects.  The aim of the program is to improve students’ reading levels to meet grade level requirements as measured by state wide assessments.  An appendix gives baseline data of a target group of students.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chapter 1: Purpose
Background
I work at a middle school in suburban area.  The school district is located in the middle of a southeastern state.  The district is made of a variety of areas to include inner-city, urban, suburban and rural.  The part of the district where my school is located also has a high population of migrant students.  That area surrounding the school is made up primarily of single family homes that have been built within the last ten years.  The school has been open for eight years to date.  The school has approximately 1,100 students.  The breakdown of the student body is as follows: 60.6% are Caucasian, 18.7% are Hispanic, 11.6% are Black, 5.7% are Multi-racial, 3% are Asian, and .4% are Indian.  The special categories of the student population are as follows: 12.8% are Students with Disabilities (SWD), 14.3% are gifted, and 29.2% are Economically Disadvantaged.  The school serves grades six through eight.
The population targeted for this project is seventh and eighth grade students with disabilities.  The school has approximately 80 classrooms in six buildings.  The students have six classes per day and have to move from building to building in order to get make it from one class to the next.  SWD’s are mainstreamed for most if not all of their classes, with some exceptions.  The students in need of more intense services for core academic subjects have classes in the building nearest to the main office of the school.  The subjects taught in these classes include resource settings for Intensive Reading, Language Arts, and Math.  There is also one self-contained varying exceptionalities classroom that services all academic needs of low level learning disabled students and intellectually disabled students.  The students in the target class are taught in back to back resource classes for reading and language arts are in grades seven and eight.
Discrepancy Statement
            Students with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) and Intellectual Disabilities (ID) in the target reading resource classroom must be at a level 3 in reading achievement, as measured on statewide reading assessments, and have a lexile score between 1,050 and 1,100, as measured on Florida Assessment for Instruction in Reading (FAIR) Testing in order to be considered on grade level.  All students in the target reading resource class are reading well below grade level with statewide reading scores of level 1 and a beginning mean FAIR Test score of 754 (n=13).
Problem Statement
SLD and ID students are all indentified as students with disabilities, as defined by state and federal guidelines, all have current individualized education plans, all have appropriate reading goals and objectives, and are all in need of more intensive services and a smaller class setting in order to increase their reading achievement levels.  Finally, the target students all have a documented history of reading difficulties.  All students are level 1 reader’s, on a scale of 1 to 5 where 3 is considered average, and most have FAIR test results that are deemed well below average as compared with same grade peers.
The goal for the target students is to improve their reading levels to a level 3 or higher on state testing and attain a lexile score from 1,050 to 1,100 as measured on FAIR Testing.
 
Chapter 2: Literature Review
“The data from the National Assessment in Reading Progress indicate that unless something is done to dramatically improve the reading skills of the nation’s students, nearly one quarter of them will graduate from high school with insufficient reading skills (Veerkamp, Kamps & Cooper, 2007, p. 25).”  Mary Beth Calhoon (2005) states: “Reading is a fundamental skill on which academic success, secure employment, and personal autonomy depend (p. 424).”  The skill of being an effective reader is especially important to middle school students if they intend on being academically successful in all subjects of the middle school curriculum. Many of the classes that a middle school student encounters require a level of reading that far exceeds what the students experience in elementary grades.   The previous statement goes along with what Paige (2006) states, “The premium of fluent reading rises dramatically in middle school with the increased demands of content area reading (p. 168).”  When a struggling reader encounters the increased demands of middle school content area reading, the readers often takes much longer to complete assignments, becomes increasingly frustrated with his/her efforts not leading to success and finally resistant to continue with further efforts in his/her studies (as cited by Paige, 2006).  According to McCray (as cited by Calhoon, 2005), “21% of girls and 31% of boys” in middle grades do not have the ability to read at even a “basic literacy level (p. 424).” This fact is especially true for students with disabilities (SWD).
In review of research, Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E. & Graetz, J. E. (2003) discusses the many hurdles faced by students with reading deficiencies and educators in, “Reading comprehension instruction for secondary students: challenges for struggling students and teachers (pp. 103-16).”  Mastropieri, et al. (2003) mentions struggles faced by below level readers.  The first struggle is the student’s ability versus the difficulty of the text being faced in middle and high school.  The next struggle is the variety of organizational methods used in the different content area texts.   This problem is magnified by the physical size of most of the texts used.  The students are further subjected to stress by the speed at which the material is typically presented by content area teachers.  Along with the speed the material is presented, the students are faced with an ever increasing workload as their schooling progresses.  When the students are frustrated with the ever increasing stress of their school workload, the teachers also feel the pain and bewilderment of below average, incomplete and not completed work.  The assessment grades of the lower achieving students directly correlate with poor quality of work submitted to the teacher (2003).  Mastropieri et al. states, “research syntheses provide direct evidence that specific interventions in reading comprehension have produced significant positive outcomes for students with learning disabilities (p.105).”  Mastropieri et al. also cites several strategies that have been proven to benefit students with disabilities in the article.  Some of these strategies include, but are not limited to: one-on-one instruction, elaboration, monitoring, task breakdown, model of skills, corrective feedback, use of prior knowledge, and metacognition, just to name a few (2003).  Although limited studies have been completed with middle and high school students, Mastropieri et al. states that the proper use of peer-tutoring for students with disabilities in specific content areas, such as science and social studies, has been found to be extremely valuable when teacher attitudes towards the use of peer tutoring are positive (2003).  Mastropieri et al. gives several ideas in the summary and conclusions section.  Specific interventions such as comprehension and summarization strategies, peer mediation and intensity of instruction are suggested to have positive results for students with disabilities when implemented properly and consistently by the educator (2003).  Along with strategies needed for students with disabilities, specific deficit areas must be studied in order to aid in further reading achievement.
Hock, M. F., Brasseur, I. F., Deschler, D. D., Catts, H. W., Marquis, J. G., Mark, C. A. & Stribling, J. W. (2009) discusses and provides result of a study titled, “What is the reading component skill profile of adolescent struggling readers in urban schools (pp. 21-38)?”  Hock et al. studied 345 students to gain knowledge of specific areas of deficit for struggling readers.  The goal of the study was to discover if and what the differences are between students with disabilities and proficient readers in the areas of: word level, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension (2009).  The 345 participants were divided into reading categories ranging from unsatisfactory to exemplary (2009).  Of the 345 students involved in the study, 35 were students with disabilities (2009).  The results of the study show that struggling readers including learning disabled students score between 20 and 25 points below the mean (standard score of 100) when compared with students found to be proficient readers (scoring 96 or higher) in all four areas central to the study (2009).
In a three year study conducted by Kamps, D. M., Greenwood, C., Arreage-Mayer, C., Veerkamp, M. B., Utley, C., Tapia, Y., Bowman-Perrott, L. & Bannister, H. (2008) in the Kansas City Metropolitan area, Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) was found to have an overall effect of substantially increasing favorable reading behaviors in middle school students, including SWD’s, and drastically decreased the amounts of competing behaviors (off task behaviors) when compared with teacher led instructional practices (2008).  “CWPT enables general educators to meet the instructional needs of a broad range of students by organizing them in dyads during a portion of the weekly instruction (2008, p. 120).”  Several distinct advantages to CWPT are present (as cited by Kamps et al.), such as, ease of differentiating instruction, immediate, student-based corrective feedback, dramatic and class-wide increases in on task behavior, rapid comprehension increases for all students including SWD’s, greater satisfaction with learning, skills other than just reading are able to be taught simultaneously, and costs are kept to a minimum (2008).  Gains are increased even further when a simple lottery system is incorporated to encourage a reduction in competing behaviors (Kamps, et al., 2008; Veerkamp, Kamps & Cooper, 2007) Kamps et al. states, in the three year study, student gains not only occurred in the area of pure reading instruction but also in the content areas of social studies and science (2008).  Kamps et al. goes onto state that the use of CWPT showed promising results in urban and suburban areas, across all academic levels including SWD’s and with English Language Learning (ELL) students (2008).  A wide-spread use of CWPT may enable more use of heterogeneous classes, i.e. high, medium and low level readers in the same reading classes.  This would be the opposite of most of today’s models of current reading classrooms where high level students are grouped together in reading classes, mid-level students are together, and low level students are grouped into homogeneous classes.
A different but also important study dealing with tutoring and reading achievement was conducted by Osborn, J., Freeman, A., Burley, M., Wilson, R., Jones, E. & Rychener, S. (2007) titled, “Effect of tutoring on reading achievement for students with cognitive disabilities, specific learning disabilities, and students receiving title I services (pp. 467-74).”  Although the study dealt with elementary students, the results and recommendations are very promising for use with middle school students in the same demographic areas listed in the title of the article.  The participants in the study were forty-three elementary schools in the state of Ohio in small and/or rural areas.  Most of the schools involved were evaluated and found to be effective by state standards.  The racial breakdown of the area showed that more than three quarters of the students were Caucasian, with the rest being about evenly split between African American, Multi-racial and Asian American.  Also noted by the Osborn et al., 15% of the population was students with disabilities (2007).  There were 21 schools chosen for the study that would be the comparison group.  The racial breakdown and percentage of students with disabilities of the comparison schools was virtually the same (2007).  A total of 90 students in both groups, all students with disabilities, participated in the study.  The average age of the students in the study was eight years six months.  All students in the study also had substantial discrepancies between grade level achievement and IQ test results (2007).  The tutors involved in the study consisted of any high age or older person from the school community that was willing to participate in the training and commit to participation for the length of the study (2007).  The design of the tutoring was one tutor, one student.  The tutors were trained and received feedback during the entire study period.  After the reading level of the students was attained, lesson plans were designed for use with the students.  Pre and post-tests were given to the students and progress records were kept during the course of the study.  Tutoring sessions were held several days each week and lasted a half hour.  The sessions were held on the school campus.  The first part of each session consisted of a reading activity followed by class related spelling and vocabulary, and finally with strategies for the specific student (2007).  The materials used with the students were downloaded from Readinga-z.com.  This site enables tutors to retrieve materials and plans based on the students unique needs.  Several hundred tutoring units were developed for use with the students from the website (2007).  The pre and post-test measures were conducted by a team that went to each school (2007).  Osborn et al. states,”results of the intervention students were matched to the comparison group” and “demonstrated significant positive results for the intervention (p. 467).”  Limitations mentioned by Osborn et al. are: there was no random assignment during the study, and the comparison group used no “one-on-one reading tutoring (2007, p. 473).”  This type of a tutoring program is a very favorable option for struggling readers in middle school identified as students with disabilities.
Douglas Fisher (2001) takes a different approach and studies students with disabilities as the tutors for elementary students in his article titled, “Cross age tutoring: alternatives to the reading resource room for struggling adolescent readers (pp. 234-40).”  There were three schools used for the study, two middle schools with approximately 20 students each were used as a study and comparison groups, and a feeder elementary school located between the middle schools.  The students in the elementary school were in first and second grade classes (2001).  The middle school students in the study group used texts of interest to the elementary school students that increased in difficulty as time progressed.  The middle school students were instructed in tutoring methods and used teacher provided lesson plans.  Tutoring sessions were held two days per week and, on the off days, the middle school tutors wrote reflections of their experiences.  The middle school teacher would model further lessons to be used in the ongoing sessions.  The middle school teacher would also read texts that were above reading level for the middle school tutors in read-aloud sessions held each day during the study (2001).  The results of the study suggest that the tutors had an “authentic reason for literacy, regular feedback and modeling, and integration into the writing curriculum” resulting in benefits for the middle school students (2001, p. 234).  Though limitations were not discussed by Fisher, there are some logistical problems to be considered for use of a program of this nature.  First, finding an appropriate combination of schools presents a problem in most districts.  Time constraints for the implementation of the program are also factor due to the fact that most middle schools and elementary schools are on different daily schedules.  A third issue is a problem of transportation issues.  A final problem is one of funding because school districts may not be willing to pay for a program of this nature.
In study conducted by Sutherland and Snyder (2007), “the effects of reciprocal peer tutoring and self-graphing of reading data, active responding, and ready fluency” was completed with a group of students with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD) (p. 103).  The four students involved in the study were EBD and reading below grade level (2007).  This study of the use of reciprocal peer tutoring had three aims: “increase active responding, decreased disruptive behaviors, and an increase in ready fluency when compared to typical classroom instruction (p. 104).”  The students were all from the same middle school located in the southeastern United States and were all in the same self-contained classroom with a teacher and a teaching assistant (2007).  Using a variety of data sources, the four students were placed into pairs for the purposes of the research. A baseline of information was collected before the implementation of the program using typical instructional practices.  Baseline data included results from “curriculum-based measurements” on the target students (p.106).  The intervention used for the students involved three steps: “partner reading, paragraph shrinking and prediction relay activities (pp. 106-7).”  The results of the study demonstrated that half of the study participants had decreases in instances of disruptive behavior.  The two students that had no substantial difference in instances of disruptive did not exhibit problem behaviors during any part of the study.  By the end of the study, all students’ behavior had stabilized at acceptable levels.  However, levels of active responding to reading for all students increased noticeably from the baseline measures to the completion of the study (2007).  Data from the report shows that three of the four study participants were able to meet or exceed the goal set for them in the area of improvement of words read per minute (2007, figure 3).  The study also shows that during the intervention period of the study, all students showed decreases in errors per minute (2007, figure 4).  Sutherland and Snyder discussed limitations in the study such as: limited number of students involved, the study only dealing a single classroom of students, data was not collected consistently during the study and, most importantly, the intervention was also not implemented on a consistent basis throughout the study period (2007).
A different idea on how to improve reading achievement, specifically reading fluency, is proposed by David D. Paige (2006) in a paper he wrote dealing with, “Repeated reading utilizing above grade level reading passages (p. 167).”  Paige’s study dealt with improving “reading rate as measured in words per minute (wpm)” and a reduction in “reading miscues (p. 167).”  Paige’s study dealt specifically with middle school SWD’s (2006).  The mean reading percentile of the study group as measured on previous year’s state-wide assessments was 13th percentile, well below average (2006).  The findings of his study indicate that repeated reading of above grade level passages on a weekly basis increased overall reading fluency of the same passage an average of 32 words per minute and reduced reading miscues of the same passage by an average of approximately 2 words per passage (2006).  The majority of the students in the study group also showed gains in fluency on the pre-test/post-test instrument used as a baseline in Paige’s study (2006).  The students not showing fluency gains had very specific difficulties, one having mild mental retardation, one with decoding difficulties and the third would repeat entire sentences when miscues where made (2006).   Although limitations were discussed in the study, Paige points out two positive outcomes of the study.  The first being that repeated reading by the student, along with charting progress being made is “an effective strategy to help the disabled reader sharpen decoding skills and decrease miscues” and the teacher is able to recognize and correct specific decoding errors made by the student (p. 178).  Another possible benefit of the repeated reading of above grade level passages may be that the students using this strategy would be able to increase their reading comprehension skills as a result of seeing and learning to understand higher level words as they are used in context.  Repeated reading may also have a cyclical effect, in that the students continuously using this strategy over time may move onto higher reading levels in state-wide testing as a result of these positive experiences.  A final, important ancillary benefit may be an overall improvement of self image of the struggling reader. The struggling reader’s sense of success may change his/her attitude towards the task of reading.  The attitudes and emotions of the struggling must also be taken into account in order for tutoring to be successful.
Triplett (2004) discusses the emotions of the struggling reader in her article published in the Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy titled,”Looking for a struggle: Exploring the emotions of a middle school reader (pp. 214-22).”  In the article, Triple is involved in a case study dealing with one struggling reader, his mother and how his feelings toward the overall task of reading change as a result of a student centered approach to the tutoring process.  The case study would take place as tutoring sessions lasting for a one semester period (2004).  The parent involved in the study reported her son having difficulties with reading achievement resulting in her son being three grade levels behind where he should be for his current grade level.  She also reported that, due to his struggles; her son had become increasing frustrated with the task of reading (2004).  In the first session with the student, Triplet does not immediately perform typical assessments with the student.  She instead spends time at the beginning of the first session just getting to know the student and his mother.  The result of this was an improved feeling about the idea of receiving reading tutoring again.  After the initial getting to know one another, Triplett was able to begin assessing the abilities of the student (2004).  As the tutoring sessions progressed, the student’s feelings about the tutoring process improved.  The student was making the choice as to what was being used for the tutoring.  As a result of this, the tutoring sessions were much more enjoyable and entertaining for the student, Triplett and the mother (2004).  The progression of his skills resulting from the tutoring also generalized to his school situation.  The student began to have more successes in school, therefore improving his feelings about the process of learning in the school setting (2004).  The student in Triplett’s case study expressed feelings of inadequacy because he never was able to attain any accolades due to his struggles with reading; in the school setting.  The student also showed empathy for other students that were struggling with reading at the same time because they were experiencing the same results of not attaining certain levels in the school reading program.  The student’s feelings of inadequacy were perpetuated further when results of his efforts, along with all others in his class, were placed on public display for all to see and understand that his reading level was well below that of his classmates.  The student’s reading achievement was posted on the same chart in the classroom as all of the other students (2004).  Triplett found that her relationship with the student improved as sessions progressed throughout the semester she worked with the student in the case study.  Triplett would start each session with a discussion that helped Triplett and the student to catch up on what had happened to each other since they had last met (2004).  Triplett also noted some ideas that contributed to the success of the study: finding books of interest to the student to be used in the session along with articles that were based on the student’s interests such as soccer and fishing (2004).  Though the case study detailed by Triplett was a success, there is one major limitation.  The study only involved one student.  A study of this nature needs to be repeated using a larger sample in order to verify Triplett’s results.
 
 
Chapter 3: Methods
Discrepancy Statement
            Students with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) and Intellectual Disabilities (ID) in the target reading resource classroom must be at a level 3 in reading achievement, as measured on statewide reading assessments, and have a lexile score between 1,050 and 1,100, as measured on Florida Assessment for Instruction in Reading (FAIR) Testing in order to be considered on grade level.  All students in the target reading resource class are reading well below grade level with statewide reading scores of level 1 and a beginning mean FAIR Test score of 754 (n=13).
Outcome Objectives
The problem addressed by the following implementation plan is SLD and ID students are all indentified as students with disabilities, as defined by state and federal guidelines, all have current individualized education plans, all have appropriate reading goals and objectives, and are all in need of more intensive services and a smaller class setting in order to increase their reading achievement levels.  Finally, the target students all have a documented history of reading difficulties.  Mary Beth Calhoon (2005) states: “Reading is a fundamental skill on which academic success, secure employment, and personal autonomy depend (p. 424).”  The skill of being an effective reader is especially important to middle school students if they intend on being academically successful in all subjects of the middle school curriculum. Paige (2006) states, “The premium of fluent reading rises dramatically in middle school with the increased demands of content area reading (p. 168).”  Many of the classes that a middle school student encounters require a level of reading that far exceeds what the students experience in elementary grades.
The goal for the target students is to improve their reading levels to a level 3 or higher on state testing and attain a lexile score from 1,050 to 1,100 as measured on FAIR Testing.  A second goal, ancillary benefit, is to reduce competing (off task) behaviors in the target class. A final result of the study may be an increase in positive attitudes towards the task of reading instruction.  The main objective for the students is to participate in a Class-wide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) sessions.
Description of Activities
In a CWPT Program, the students are paired into cooperative groups of two or three.  The students complete paired reading assignments using the same text that are appropriate to the students’ interest and abilities.  One student reads to the other for a given amount of time and then the roles are reversed.  The students complete the process for 15 to 20 minutes in each session.  During this time, the students are also making comments to each other about the text and peer encouragement.  After the completion of the reading activities, the students will write in their composition books to cover two topics.  The first topic is a summary or reflection of the reading.  The second topic is a reflection of the tutoring session.
Before the students start the CWPT sessions, they complete interest inventories for the teacher to use in order to assemble needed materials for use.  The study period lasts five weeks.  The students will be instructed on the proper procedures to follow during the sessions.  The procedures will be reinforced by the teacher each session during the length of the study.  The students will also be using composition books to produce written samples dealing with the text and their reflections each session.
CWPT sessions take place two to three days per week and are interspersed with normal classroom instruction.  During the sessions, the classroom teacher will conduct observations on the students, correcting student procedures, making needed changes to student pairings for the first two weeks of the study, conduct interviews with students to assess attitudes during the study period, and finally make anecdotal records of competing behaviors.
Goals

  1. To increase student reading achievement scores to a level 3 (scores ranging from 1 to 5, where 3 is considered to be on grade level) or higher as measured on state-wide assessments of reading.
  2. To increase student lexile scores from a mean score of 754 to a range between 1050 and 1100 as measured on FAIR Testing.
  3. To reduce competing (off task) behaviors in the study group during reading instruction.

Objectives

  1. Students will participate in teacher led CWPT for a period of 4 weeks to increase reading levels (see goals 1 and 2 above).
  2. Students will participate in FAIR Testing in order to assess reading gains.
  3. Students will complete state-wide assessment in reading to assess reading achievement.
  4. Teacher will facilitate CWPT during the four week study period.
  5. Teacher will maintain records of observations and interviews to assess and report on study results and student progress.
  6. Teacher will keep anecdotal records of competing behaviors.
  7. Teacher will produce final report of study group results to includes results of FAIR and state-wide assessments.

 
 
 
Implementation Matrix

Weeks Teacher Tasks Materials Teaching Strategies (What will the teacher do?) Learning Activities (What will the students do?) Evaluation Strategies
Week 1:              Prior to Implementation –  Information gathering of student data from State-wide assessments and FAIR Testing. Assemble results of Statewide Assessment and FAIR Testing Desktop computer, printer, paper, and student data results sheets. Compile Testing and Assessment Data on students. Complete reading interest inventories with students in target group. Students will complete reading interest inventories as a self assessment measure. Place all data results onto an Excel Spreadsheet for each of use.   Compile results of interest inventories in order to gather needed reading materials for CWPT.
Week 2: Objective #2 Implementation of CWPT Program with target student class Gather needed materials for the CWPT and begin instruction on procedures for CWPT. Variety of text types based on student interest and reading levels.  Class set of composition books to be used for student writing of summaries and reflections. Instruct classes on procedures of CWPT. Place students in pairings for the CWPT.  Distribution of student composition books and reading materials for use during CWPT study period.  Teacher will keep anecdotal records of student behaviors and reading attitutes. Rehearsal of procedures for CWPT and beginning of CWPT. Students will complete initial writings in composition books. Teacher observations and corrections of procedures with students.  Teacher interviews of students to assess initial attitudes on in class reading instruction. Anecdotal record keeping to measure levels of competing behaviors.
Week 3: Objective #2 Implementation of CWPT Program with target student class. Continue to gather materials for student use in class. Assemble needed record keeping materials. Variety of text types based on student interest and reading levels.  Class set of composition books to be used for student writing of summaries and reflections. Continue to monitor students during tutoring sesssions.  Make adjustments to student pairings as needed to improve the tutoring experience.  Ensure student completion of written assignments coinciding with tutoring program.  Continue with anecdotal records of behaviors and attitudes.  Make changes to the text being used with the student pairings based on student needs. Students get into tutoring pairs, assemble needed materials and continue with CWPT. Teacher observations and corrections of procedures with students.  Changes to students pairing as needed based upon behavioral observations.  Teacher interviews of students to assess and measure changes in student  attitudes during CWPT.  Anecdotal record keeping to measure levels of competing behaviors.  Assess written samples in composition books to assess needs for further instruction based.
Week 4: Objective #2 Implementation of CWPT Program with target student class Continue to gather materials for student use in class. Assemble needed record keeping materials. Variety of text types based on student interest and reading levels.  Class set of composition books to be used for student writing of summaries and reflections. Continue to monitor students during tutoring sesssions.  Ensure student completion of written assignments coinciding with tutoring program.  Continue with anecdotal records of behaviors and attitudes.  Make changes to the text being used with the student pairings based on student needs. Students get into tutoring pairs, assemble needed materials and continue with CWPT. Teacher observations and corrections of procedures with students.   Teacher interviews of students to assess and measure changes in student  attitudes during CWPT.  Anecdotal record keeping to measure levels of competing behaviors.  Assess written samples in composition books to assess needs for further instruction based on student needs.
Week 5: Objective #2 Implementation of CWPT Program with target student class Continue to gather materials for student use in class. Assemble needed record keeping materials. Variety of text types based on student interest and reading levels.  Class set of composition books to be used for student writing of summaries and reflections. Continue to monitor students during tutoring sesssions.  Ensure student completion of written assignments coinciding with tutoring program.  Continue with anecdotal records of behaviors and attitudes.  Make changes to the text being used with the student pairings based on student needs. Students get into tutoring pairs, assemble needed materials and continue with CWPT. Teacher observations and corrections of procedures with students.  Teacher interviews of students to assess and measure changes in student  attitudes during CWPT.  Anecdotal record keeping to measure levels of competing behaviors.  Assess written samples in composition books to assess needs for further instruction based on student needs.
Week 6: Objective #3 Formal Measurement of student progress. Completion of FAIR Testing with students in target class. Computer lab Ensure that all students in the target class are proficient with the use of the FAIR test computer program.  Monitor student progress and correct problems during the administration of the computer based testing. Students will complete the FAIR test on an individual basis in the computer lab. Compile student results of FAIR testing.  Add results to Excel spreadsheet detailing student results.  Make needed comparisions to measure effectiveness of CWPT program.  Complete report detailing results of CWPT, student attitude changes, and student competing behaviors during study period.
Week 7: Objective #3 Formal Measurement of student progress. Completion of State-wide reading assessment Testing with students in target class. All Testing materials: test booklets, answer sheets, and pencils. Read testing instruction script to students before administering the assessment and re-read insrtuctions as needed during testing sessions. Completion of the state-wide reading assessement. Compile student results of state-wide testing.  Add results to Excel spreadsheet detailing student results.  Make needed comparisions to measure effectiveness of CWPT program.  Complete report detailing results of CWPT, student attitude changes, and student competing behaviors during study period.

 
 
Chapter 4: Evaluation Plan
The objectives for this proposed project are as follows:  Over a five week period, the students will attend their regularly scheduled reading resource classes.  The students will be paired into groups of two or three for the purposes of the Class-wide Peer Tutoring (CWPT).  The classroom teacher will complete observations of the students, complete interviews with the students on an individual basis, and keep anecdotal records of competing (off task) behaviors in the class.  The goals of the proposed study are to increase reading achievement levels in the target group, and to decrease levels of competing behaviors.
The evaluation of the study will be completed using two measures.  The first of these measures would be a final assessment of the FAIR Testing.  The second measure is the students’ completion of the state-wide assessment in reading.
The classroom teacher will complete a final report containing detailed results of interviews, anecdotal records and testing results to examine the overall effectiveness of the CWPT.
 
 
 
 
 
 
References
Calhoon, M. B. (September/October 2005). Effects of a peer-mediated phonological skill and reading comprehension program on reading skill acquisition for middle school students with reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities 38 (5), p. 424-33. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
“FCAT Achievement Levels.” Florida Department of Education. July 2008. FDOE, Web. 25 Jan 2010. Retrieved from http://fcat.fldoe.org/pdf/fcAchievementLevels.pdf
Fisher, D. (December 2001). Cross age tutoring: alternatives to the reading resource room for struggling adolescent readers. Journal of Instructional Psychology 28 (4), p. 234-40.  Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
Friedland, E. S. & Truscott, D. M. (April 2005). Building awareness and commitment of middle school students through literacy tutoring. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 48 (7), p. 550-62. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
Hock, M. F., Brasseur, I. F., Deschler, D. D., Catts, H. W., Marquis, J. G., Mark, C. A. & Stribling, J. W. (Winter 2009). What is the reading component skill profile of adolescent struggling readers in urban schools? Learning Disability Quarterly 32 (1), p. 21-38.  Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
Kamps, D. M., Greenwood, C., Arreage-Mayer, C., Veerkamp, M. B., Utley, C., Tapia, Y., Bowman-Perrott, L. & Bannister, H. (May 2008). The efficacy of classwide peer tutoring in middle schools. Education and Treatment of Children 31 (2), p. 119-52. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
“Lexile-Grade Coorespondence.” The Lexile Framework for Reading. 2010. MetaMetrics, Inc., Web. 23 Jan 2010.  Retrieved from                                                                              http://www.lexile.com/about-lexile/grade-equivalent/grade-equivalent-chart/
Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E. & Graetz, J. E. (Spring 2003). Reading comprehension instruction for secondary students: challenges for struggling students and teachers. Learning Disability Quarterly 26 (2), p. 103-16. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
Osborn, J., Freeman, A., Burley, M., Wilson, R., Jones, E. & Rychener, S. (December 2007). Effect of tutoring on reading achievement for students with cognitive disabilities, specific learning disabilities, and students receiving title I services. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities 42 (4), p. 467-74. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
Paige, D. D. (January/February 2006). Increasing fluency in disabled middle school readers: repeated reading utilizing above grade level reading passages. Reading Horizons 46 (3), p. 167-81. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
Sutherland, K. S. & Snyder, A. (Summer 2007). Effects of reciprocal peer tutoring and self-graphing on reading fluency and classroom behavior of middle school students with emotional or behavioral disorders. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15 (2), p. 103-18. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
Triplett, C. F. (November 2004). Looking for a struggle: exploring the emotions of a middle school reader. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 48 (3), p. 214-22. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
Veerkamp, M. B., Kamps, D. & Cooper, L. (May 2007). The effects of classwide peer tutoring on the reading achievement of urban middle school students. Education and Treatment of Children  30 (2), p. 21-51. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com
 
 
Appendix A:  Target Reading Class Baseline Scores

Student Gr Gr Tested FCAT Level Scale Score Dev Scale Score Lexile Test 1 Lexile Test 2 Gender Ethnicity Eligibility Teacher
DC 7 6 1 208 1138 960 1120 Male White SLD P
ME 7 6 1 185 1010 220 745 Female Hispanic SLD P
GGR 7 6 1 215 1177 610 620 Male Hispanic SLD P
TL 7 6 1 262 1438 1080 1065 Male White SLD P
DH 8 7 1 252 1467 875 955 Male Black EMH P
SH 8 7 1 221 1305 530 955 Female White EMH P
HL 8 7 1 247 1441 855 925 Female White SLD P
LMD 8 7 1 100 671 1175 530 Female White SLD P
ANT 8 7 1 171 1043 530 530 Male Hispanic SLD P
TP 8 7 1 250 1457 925 1105 Male White SLD P
DW 8 7 1 147 917 530 805 Male Hispanic SLD P
Average Scores 205.3 1187.6 753.6 850.5

 

UDL Guidelines: Examples and Resources

This discussion is an opportunity to further demonstrate your ability to apply the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) to the design of instruction and assessment. As you learned last week from reading Edyburn (2013) Chapter 5 and viewing the CAST (2010) video UDL at a Glance, the three main principles supporting UDL are to Provide Multiple Means of (a) Representation (the “what of learning), (b) Action and Expression (the “how” of learning), and (c) Engagement (the “why” of learning). For this discussion you will review technology checkpoints as they relate to the three main principles of UDL. IT may be helpful to review the Week Three Instructor Guidance page where UDL is explored in the intellectual elaboration and to take time now to review your feedback from the Week Three assessments as well. Then, to prepare for this discussion, read the Week Four Instructor Guidance and then visit the UDL Guidelines – Version 2.0: Examples and Resources (2014) website. At the website, select the principle you have been assigned based on your last name using the list below. You will then choose one checkpoint from the principle you have been assigned to review.
If your last name begins with A-J: Choose one checkpoint from any of the three guidelines from Principle 1. Provide Multiple Means of Representation.
Last name is Browne
Within the checkpoint there are several examples and/or resources that support the principle and checkpoint. Next, choose one example/resource that interests you to explore, interact with, and evaluate. You may also choose to consider examples geared toward the grade level you are currently teaching, have experience in, or intend to teach.
Initial Post: Create a Jing tutorial or other multimedia-based presentation with software such as Present.me to showcase the specific UDL checkpoint example selected. Include the link to your Jing tutorial or presentation featuring the example/resource selected as well as written responses to the discussion points below. Your written response needs to be between one and two paragraphs in length. One of the ways to make your discussion engaging and effective is by including audio of your voice alongside a presentation of the information you have investigated. You can talk through these points during your tutorial. Keep in mind, the maximum length of a Jing video is five minutes so it will help to create a presentation in PowerPoint first that is five slides long with each slide covering one of the five points below. If for some reason you are unable to complete this discussion using the recommended technology, please contact your instructor for an alternative way to respond.
(a) State the principle and checkpoint (number and description) analyzed.
(b) Describe the specific example or resource selected (title given), the age group intended for, and the content area it covers.
(c) Describe the example/resource explored explaining how it works
(d) Address each of the “Key Considerations” for the checkpoint.
(e)Share an idea you have for how this resource might be used effectively during instruction or assessment opportunities in your current classroom or your future practice.

Minimizing modifications for individual students.

This discussion is an opportunity for you to apply the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) in relationship to constructivism and meeting the needs of all students. To prepare for this discussion, aside from reviewing the Week Four Instructor Guidance, you will need to view the video UDL Minimizes modifications for individual students at the CAST website. To view the video, you will need to sign up for a free CAST account.
Initial Post: Create an initial response that addresses the following areas.
(a) Evaluate how the video has strengthened or otherwise changed your views about differentiated instruction? Do you have a deeper understanding and appreciation for differentiated instruction now? Why/ Why not?
(b) Analyze the benefits for both students and the teacher when instruction follows the UDL framework when compared to the practice of isolating learners and planning for specific modifications for individual students.
(c) Discuss what you learned in the video about setting up a non-threatening learning environment that does not isolate students. For example, what connections can you make between this and what you observed when analyzing the lesson during Week Three and when evaluating the example or resource in the Week Four Discussion 1.

Program Design and Evaluation

Acme Behavioral Consultation, Inc. has another new client. This time, you are asked to join a team of consultants who have been working with GlobalEd Charter school. GlobalEd is a for-profit organization in Washington, D.C. serving a diverse group of students, culturally and economically. GlobalEd president has reported that behavior incidents have increased since the beginning of the school year in all classes. The president has been lobbying the board for the last two years to develop a behavior management services unit at the school. In addition, she believes that the staff require additional training on cultural sensitivity and multicultural issues. She insists that this unit is now a critical need.
Your Acme Behavioral Consultation, Inc. supervisor developed the following list of interventions based on the planning process to this point:
● The creation of a small behavior management division
● The development of appropriate training in multicultural issues
Now it is time to identify objectives for these interventions. Identify one possible objective for each of the interventions listed. When developing your objectives remember to think about the important parts of each intervention (process) and the steps needed to develop each. In addition, consider the ideal outcomes to be accomplished. Remember all objectives should have these five components (listed on p. 134 of your text):
1. Time frame
2. Target of the change
3. Products (process) or results (outcomes) to be achieved
4. Criteria by which the products or results will be documented, monitored, or measured
5. Responsibility for implementing and measuring achievement of objective
Each objective should combine each of these components into a few clear and concise sentences.

The impact of social media on Small/ Medium Enterprise (SME) -To explore the effects of social media on Hairdressers in the UK.

Research Project (Marketing) Proposal Document
Academic Year 2015-2016
 
Working Title: The impact of social media on Small/ Medium Enterprise (SME)
-To explore the effects of social media on the fashion industry in the UK.
 

1: Introduction & Justification (maximum 150 words)
Outline precisely the Marketing issue you wish to research (your research aim) and briefly explain why you have chosen it. You should include supporting references where relevant.
 
2. Critical Literature Review (maximum 700 words, no word limit for the references)
·         Provide a critical review of the main areas of literature that will inform your project. Your review must have supporting references and be organised around appropriate themes.
·         Models, including conceptual framework, can be included here or placed in the appendix.
NB This will form the basis of the literature review you include in the final coursework.
3: Research Questions (maximum 50 words)
·         Two to three research objectives
4: Research Methods (maximum 500 words)
Outline as precisely as you can your intended research design. This should include the research methods, sources of data, sampling strategy and likely analytical processes
 
5: Conclusions (maximum 150 words)
Conclude the entire proposal & highlight any limitations. State the word count (excluding references & appendix) at the end of this section
 
6: References (excluded from word count)
·         Academic References: minimum 15 (predominantly peer reviewed articles, with possibly a small number of text books)
·         Supporting References: as required, including web sites, press articles, company information and government or trade body sources
 
7: Appendices (excluded from word count)
You must also submit a completed Research Ethics form, either NBS Ethics02 or NBS Ethics03, with this document.
Appendices should also include:

  • Time Plan (Gantt Chart) of proposed timings and activities
  • If not included in section 2, models referred to in literature (properly labelled and attributed) and your own conceptual framework

 
Teacher Comments;
 
Will need to develop 2/3 research objectives. a) Definition of an SME ( are you looking at all SMEs or a particular category i.e. small or micro ? b) what is the size of the market ( try Mintel, or a professional association that hairdressers belong to) c) be clear you understand what you mean by social media ( look at the literature) d) access the small business academic literature on social media ( so do a key word search on the appropriate small business and marketing journals). It would appear that you are approaching the topic from a marketing communications stance – so remember social media is another form of marketing comms.
Research Project (Marketing) Proposal Document
Academic Year 2015-2016
 
Working Title: The impact of social media on Small/ Medium Enterprise (SME)
-To explore the effects of social media on the fashion industry in the UK.
 

1: Introduction & Justification (maximum 150 words)
Outline precisely the Marketing issue you wish to research (your research aim) and briefly explain why you have chosen it. You should include supporting references where relevant.
 
2. Critical Literature Review (maximum 700 words, no word limit for the references)
·         Provide a critical review of the main areas of literature that will inform your project. Your review must have supporting references and be organised around appropriate themes.
·         Models, including conceptual framework, can be included here or placed in the appendix.
NB This will form the basis of the literature review you include in the final coursework.
3: Research Questions (maximum 50 words)
·         Two to three research objectives
4: Research Methods (maximum 500 words)
Outline as precisely as you can your intended research design. This should include the research methods, sources of data, sampling strategy and likely analytical processes
 
5: Conclusions (maximum 150 words)
Conclude the entire proposal & highlight any limitations. State the word count (excluding references & appendix) at the end of this section
 
6: References (excluded from word count)
·         Academic References: minimum 15 (predominantly peer reviewed articles, with possibly a small number of text books)
·         Supporting References: as required, including web sites, press articles, company information and government or trade body sources
 
7: Appendices (excluded from word count)
You must also submit a completed Research Ethics form, either NBS Ethics02 or NBS Ethics03, with this document.
Appendices should also include:

  • Time Plan (Gantt Chart) of proposed timings and activities
  • If not included in section 2, models referred to in literature (properly labelled and attributed) and your own conceptual framework

 
Teacher Comments;
 
Will need to develop 2/3 research objectives. a) Definition of an SME ( are you looking at all SMEs or a particular category i.e. small or micro ? b) what is the size of the market ( try Mintel, or a professional association that hairdressers belong to) c) be clear you understand what you mean by social media ( look at the literature) d) access the small business academic literature on social media ( so do a key word search on the appropriate small business and marketing journals). It would appear that you are approaching the topic from a marketing communications stance – so remember social media is another form of marketing comms.

Research Proposal (Marketing) Student Feedback Form
Student: Topic:
 
Indicative Grade:
 
NB: This is an indicative grade for feedback purposes
 
Class/
Grade
Assessment Criteria
 
Fail
Low |  Mid
 
 
Marginal Fail
 
Third
Low   |  Mid   | High
 
 
 
Lower Second
Low   |  Mid   | High
 
 
Upper Second
Low   |  Mid   | High
 
 
First
Low   |  Mid   | High
 
 
First
Exceptional First
 
1.
Research aim(s), research questions (RQs) and justification
Aim of the research unclear, RQs may be missing. Insufficient definition of topic for the reader to identify what the project is about. No justification or rationale offered. Aim of the research unclear, RQs missing / vague or scope may not be feasible. Inadequate level of definition in that topic not clearly defined, nor justified.
.
Research aim is stated. RQs provide adequate definition of topic, but focus may need to be revised. Little justification or rationale for topic choice provided. Research aim & RQs clear, although may need refining. Solid justification of topic area which is derived from ideas presented on the course but little evidence of individual motivation other than fulfilling the project requirements. Research aim good. RQs feasible & provide good definition of topic area which is justified. Topic clearly derived from ideas presented on the course but demonstrates an individual approach and motivation. Interesting research aim, well considered RQs provide excellent definition of topic area. Justification is excellent covering relevance of and motivation for topic choice. Topic has some element of originality. Interesting or original research aim & RQs. Exceptional definition and justification of topic area, providing relevance of, and motivation for choice. Topic has aspects of originality and has a wider significance and interest.
2.
Critical review of relevant literature & development of conceptual framework (CF)
Insufficient coverage of literature and largely ignores the core areas altogether. No conceptual framework. Wholly descriptive in style. Poor coverage of literature and wholly descriptive in style. Disjointed or lacks understanding. Needs to provide further identification and understanding of core literature to achieve a pass standard. CF inadequate or missing. Identifies some of the key areas of literature but draws upon limited range of sources. CF missing or weak. Style may be largely descriptive with poor flow of material. Good solid identification and coverage of key areas of literature, but somewhat limited in resources utilised. CF offered, but basic. Logical structure but style may be more towards descriptive. Good identification and genuine understanding of the literature evident. CF good. Draws upon a good range of sources. Flows well & clear themes are evident. Critical evaluation starting to emerge Excellent use of appropriate selection and critical evaluation of reading from a range of sources. Excellent CF. Clear themes emerge. Generally well written but may benefit from further editing/developing of arguments. Evidence of extensive and appropriate selection and critical evaluation of reading from a wide and imaginative range of resources. Original CF developed. Review has clarity & a distinctive account is presented.
3.
Choice and justification of proposed research design
Research design confused or impractical. May be missing sections such as method of data collection sampling or analysis. Lacks clear explanation. Time plans missing or lacking detail. Inadequate details provided to gain understanding of proposed research, or inconsistencies / problems apparent. Needs to explain details of how chosen methods will be utilised.
Time plans vague.
Research design adequately explained but some sections may be missing, inconsistent or poorly explained.
Time plan feasible.
Research design is practical. It is clear what will research will be undertaken, with some justification provided. May be reliant on standard approach, or miss some limitations. Time plan sensible. Very good practical research design having clarity with regard to what, how and why. Coverage of details may be patchy, but overall a robust design is explained and justified. Time plan good. Excellent research design presented. This has clarity and is well justified. May go beyond the standard methods or strongly justifies their use. Limitations clear.  Time plan strong and rationale clear. Exceptional research design. Excellent coverage within words available. Convincingly written showing clarity of thinking and critical awareness. Time plan excellent showing rationale, organisation or alternatives.

 
 

4.
Presentation of proposal  and referencing
Very poor presentation making the proposal very difficult to follow.
No evidence of any attempt to reference work properly or at all.
Proposal is difficult to follow and understand.
Inaccurate referencing and no consistent format adopted.
Adequate presentation of proposal.
Referencing not compliant with Harvard conventions and some missed or inaccurate references.
Good style of presentation. Structure acceptable but more signposting could improve the flow of material and readability.
Some minor errors in referencing and not fully compliant with Harvard conventions.
Very good style of presentation.
Some signposting between sections but could further improve coherence and strengthen arguments.
Very good use of Harvard referencing.
Excellent professional style of presentation, well written (signposting, coherence, use of headings) with near faultless use of Harvard referencing. Exemplary professional style of presentation, extremely well written (signposting, coherence, use of sections and headings to aid flow) with impeccable use of Harvard referencing, very close to, or of, publishable standard
.
 
Ethical Approval Student has obtained ethical approval and can continue with data collection: 
Yes No and needs to resubmit ethical approval document (see comments section)
Turnitin Report:
 
Additional comments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Research on experiment which been carried out on the college to analyse memory of different group of students. The experiment result is available as an attachment.

Abstract
1. Short summary of report
2. This should include one or two lines from each section of the report
3. This section should be written last
4. The abstract should be clear, concise, and should give a reader a clear overview of the subject matter
Introduction
1. Tells the reader why the current research has been undertaken
a. Exploratory?
b. Hypothesis testing?
c. Re-examination of other work?
2. It should contain
a. Initial brief discussion of area under investigation such as ‘memory’
b. Should provide a review of existing, literature that is pertinent to the concept / theory in question, including key results found to date and different methods used.
c. A rationale for the present study should be provided
d. Section ends with formal hypothesis / hypotheses
3. The layout should move from broad (e.g., memory research in general) to specific content (e.g., interference) – Visualise a funnel
4. All statement in the introduction section should be supported with references
a. All information should relate to your research question
b. Avoid just writing down everything you know about the topic
Method
Must contain all details so that anyone reading can replicate exactly what you did
Sub sections
1. Design – what was the design used? Experimental / quasi-experimental / correlational. Between groups or within groups. The independent variables and dependent variables
2. Participants – age, sex, how many, how participants were recruited
3. Materials – such as paper / pens / specialist equipment / questionnaires
4. Procedure – exact details of the running of the study
Results
1. Summary of results
a. Mean and Standard deviations
b. Graphs or tables if they aid interpretation
2. Rule of thumb is to graph only significant results
3. Do not draw conclusions here
4. Report results in concise fashion
Discussion
1. Start with summary of results
2. Then relate it to your research in the introduction
3. Was / were your hypothesis / hypotheses supported?
4. What do your results mean – implications for the field of cognitive psychology and implications for societal / practical level
5. Strengths and limitations of the study should make up a part of discussion
6. Future suggestions – directions for future research

APA Referencing

Assessment Task
This CA requires students to submit a research report based on an in-class experiment.  In the experiment students participated in a memory test which involved retroactive interference. The lecturer collected data from each participant and conducted statistical analysis of the data. Therefore, the results section will be written by the lecturer and the task of the students is to create a report including an abstract, a review of the relevant literature, a method section, the results section provided by the lecturer, a discussion section, and references.
 
 
 
The breakdown of marking will be as follows:
Abstract (10%)
Literature review (25%)
Method Section (25%)
Discussion Section (25%)
Reference Section (15%)
 
 
Assessment criteria

  1. Organise the content of the report in structured way
  2. Present key literature relating to the topic
  3. Identify appropriate hypotheses based on the existing literature
  4. Write the method section appropriately so that another researcher could replicate the study
  5. Insert the results section provided
  6. Interpret the results in the context of the pertinent literature
  7. Reference appropriately

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
General Requirements for Students:

  1. A proportion of assessment marks is allocated to presentation. All assignments must be word-processed, with word count noted unless otherwise stated by the lecturer.

 
 
Structure of Report
 
Abstract

  1. Short summary of report
  2. This should include one or two lines from each section of the report
  3. This section should be written last
  4. The abstract should be clear, concise, and should give a reader a clear overview of the subject matter

Introduction

  1. Tells the reader why the current research has been undertaken
    1. Exploratory?
    2. Hypothesis testing?
    3. Re-examination of other work?
  2. It should contain
    1. Initial brief discussion of area under investigation such as ‘memory’
    2. Should provide a review of existing, literature that is pertinent to the concept / theory in question, including key results found to date and different methods used.
    3. A rationale for the present study should be provided
    4. Section ends with formal hypothesis / hypotheses
  3. The layout should move from broad (e.g., memory research in general) to specific content (e.g., interference) – Visualise a funnel
  4. All statement in the introduction section should be supported with references
    1. All information should relate to your research question

 

  1. Avoid just writing down everything you know about the topic

Method
Must contain all details so that anyone reading can replicate exactly what you did
Sub sections

  1. Design – what was the design used? Experimental / quasi-experimental / correlational. Between groups or within groups. The independent variables and dependent variables
  2. Participants – age, sex, how many, how participants were recruited
  3. Materials – such as paper / pens / specialist equipment / questionnaires
  4. Procedure – exact details of the running of the study

 
Results

  1. Summary of results
    1. Mean and Standard deviations
    2. Graphs or tables if they aid interpretation
  2. Rule of thumb is to graph only significant results
  3. Do not draw conclusions here
  4. Report results in concise fashion

Discussion

  1. Start with summary of results
  2. Then relate it to your research in the introduction
  3. Was / were your hypothesis / hypotheses supported?
  4. What do your results mean – implications for the field of cognitive psychology and implications for societal / practical level
  5. Strengths and limitations of the study should make up a part of discussion
  6. Future suggestions – directions for future research

 
CA title
 
Abstract
Please place your abstract here
 

  1. Introduction

Please place your literary review here as well as your hypothesis
 

  1. Methodology

 
70 participants with a mean age of 26.4 took part in this experiment across full and part time first year BA in psychology course
Range: 17-49
Gender break down: 49 females and 21 males
 

  1. Results

 
3.1: Introduction
This section will provide a statistical summary of the data for each memory trial. Following this the findings for the group comparisons will be reported.  Specifically, paired samples t-tests were conducted in order to explore whether memory performance differed significantly across trials 1 -4.
 
3.2: Descriptive statistics for trials 1-4
Table 1.1 displays the mean word recall, standard deviation and number of participants across the 4 memory trials. Analysis of the initial results indicates that condition 2 (x̄ : 7.61, SD: 1.33) showed the highest retention and recall of words with an increase of 1.46 words recalled when compared to condition 1 (x̄: 6.16, SD: 1.39). This suggests that repeated exposure to the first list facilitated increased learning as shown by the higher mean score.  Condition 4 on the other hand showed the lowest mean score (x̄: 5.59, SD: 1.83). This reduction in retention shown by the decrease of 2.03 words between condition 1(x̄: 6.16, SD: 1.39) and condition 4(x̄: 5.59, SD: 1.83) indicates the retroactive interference effect as a result of the second list being introduced in condition 3(x̄: 5.93, SD: 1.70). Further analysis was conducted in order to investigate this effect.
 

  Condition 1 Condition 2 Condition 3 Condition 4
6.16 7.61 5.93 5.59
SD 1.39 1.33 1.70 1.83
N 70 70 70 70

Table 1.1 Descriptive statistics for memory recall detailing mean, standard deviation and number of participants across 4 conditions
 
3.3. Performance differences in memory across trials
A series of paired samples t-tests was conducted in order to examine if there was a statistically significant difference in memory recall following the repeated exposure to the first list of words between condition 1 and the repeated condition 2.  Analysis of these results revealed that there was a statistically significant increase in memory recall (t(69) = -7.828, p < 0.001) between condition 1 (x̄: 6.16, SD: 1.39) and condition 2 (x̄ : 7.61, SD: 1.33) of 1.46 words. The 95% confidence limits show that the population mean difference of the variables lies somewhere between -1.82 and -1.08. In addition to this a comparison of the word recall between condition 2 (x̄ : 7.61, SD: 1.33)  and condition 4 (x̄: 5.59, SD: 1.83) was carried out which confirmed that the decrease of 2.03 words between both conditions was statistically significant (t(69) = 11.67,  p  <  0.001). The 95% confidence interval showed that the population mean difference lies somewhere between 1.68 and 2.37. Finally an analysis was conducted to assess word recall for both lists between group 1 (x̄: 6.16, SD: 1.39) and group 3 (x̄: 5.93, SD: 1.70). This analysis showed no significant difference in total word recall (t(69)  =  0.923, p  > 0.05). Please see Graph 1.1 for further details.
 
Graph 1.1 showing total word recall and standard deviation across condition 1-4. * Significant difference at p<0.001% using paired samples t-test comparing condition 2, 3 and 4 against condition 1.
 

  1. Discussion

Please place your discussion here

  1. Reference Section

Please place your APA reference section here
 

criminology portfolio

In your discussion of your entry, you are to provide an outline description of the entry. Provide the following information pertaining to the entry: why did you choose that entry (some aspects of the following won’t be applicable): • Briefly summarize the entry, e.g. what is the issue/event being discussed. In this include: who are the participants/parties in the issue, the key players involved, who is talking about the issue, a timeframe for the issue, and its location .Very important to show Ability to utilize criminological principles/theories in this entry Reflecting on what you know about Criminology from this course and your other courses, what are your thoughts about the content of the entry, what are the problems you find in the contents of the entry,(I have 1 year criminology so far we head discuss different types of crimes and theories like Chicago school classical theory social control theory, positivistic ……) e.g. what misinformation/bias/stereotypes exist, is the information useful, realistic. Always provide reasons for your comments. Ability to reflect personally on the ENTRY – each entry minimum 900 words.
Need to be 3 entries
First entry – White Collar Crime
Inside Job is a 2010 documentary film, directed by Charles H. Ferguson, about the late-2000s financial crisis. Ferguson says the film is about “the systemic corruption of the United States by the financial services industry and the consequences of that systemic corruption
Second entry- Organised crime
Serial Killer / Hitman – Richard Kuklinski (The Iceman) – Documentary on You tube
Third entry- ”Katyn” in the light of public international law – war crime or genocide?
http://www.stosunki.pl/?q=content/katy%C5%84-light-public-international-law-%E2%80%93-war-crime-or-genocide

business project

The Business Project Proposal Feedback

Student Number:  1503 1461                                                                    Date: January 2016
Marker: Pam Seanor                                                                                      e: pam.seanor@uwe.ac.uk
Please note that achievement of the learning outcomes for this assessment is demonstrated against the assessment criteria.

Assessment Criteria The five-point scale below reflects the ratings on the marking grid
Critical evaluation of literature A          B          C          D          E
Case for methodology A          B          C          D          E
Clarity of problem definition and scope A          B          C          D          E
Limitations and planning A          B          C          D          E
Presentation A          B          C          D          E

 

Strengths of this assignment are: I can see that you have structured the proposal – however it appears that you did not address what was required in the sections. You discuss challenges [pp.3-4] and offer a model [p.5]; however, as reflected above, the study needs more reading, thinking and writing. You do end the review in your research questions. However, by posing ‘does the company…?’, you will end up with yes or no answers.  Please look at other aims and objectives in texts and/or empirical studies [see below]. I am particularly concerned that you do not appear to address the CSR topic, upon which you were allocated to Catherine as your supervisor; nor do you refer to the core text or materials mentioned in the lectures and/or workshops [see below].
The main ways to improve this assignment are: As above, your review of the literature shows evidence of sources. However, we asked for 6-10 seminal sources. These do not appear as seminal as the most cited is by 3 others. So. where most are recent they show no seminal works informing your study. You simply have not read widely enough to position yourself in the narratives. Meaning, it is not analytical or evaluative. Instead you mainly describe one paper, then the next one. Now – the contemporary issue you were allocated is CSR. On the one hand, CSR is interesting as it is being questioned by traditional sources. On the other hand, there are those writers critiquing that it is not going far enough. For your dissertation, you need to revisit the materials on reviewing the literature and themes. Look at the themes in other papers.
Methodology – This is problematic in a variety of ways. All of it is based upon a single reference [e.g. Kish, 1965]. Moreover, you say you are going to telephone companies and ask questions. There is no discussion or inclusion of ethics form or consent templates. Consider that you might examine CSR using a case study; this would be the methodology – which was highlighted in the lectures. Then you can consider what 2nd data are you going to examine and WHY [Here please look at Silverman’s qualitative research textbook; he has a section on CSR and analysing documents]. Further, you show no attempt to discuss how you are going to analyse the data other than saying Excel  [revisit lecture materials and the Silverman text – perhaps using content analysis of documents]. As above, I would have welcomed Collis and Hussey, the core text; please revisit it and lecture materials for your dissertation.
As for the problem and scope and planning– Basically, the timeframe concerns me as you have the submission date incorrect [1st May, p.8]. Finally, please attempt the Gantt chart for your dissertation; this was part of the brief. Finally, as for referencing – far too many unsupported statements in your text [e.g. pp7-8 have no references] and those in section 6 are incomplete + one of your references is inaccurate Melissa, B.
Please arrange what should be the 2nd meeting with your supervisor, from this proposal it does not appear you have met with Catherine, to discuss your proposal and the feedback. Make time and engage in the sessions (lectorials, workshop and espresso language) in Term 2.

 
Sources of help with your academic work are listed in the module handbook and on the module blackboard site.

The paper should be between 2-3 pages not including

The paper should be between 2-3 pages not including the cover page and references (APA format), double-
spaced, and with 12-pt. font and 1-inch margins. Research should draw from a minimum of 2-3 sources. The
paper should include the following elements:
I Cover page
II Background
III Opinion
IV Responses to questions
III References
Assignment
Tyson and China (Alpha order N-R): China recently overtook the U.S. as the world’s largest consumer of poultry.
In order to tap into the growing demand for chickens in China’s emerging middle class, Tyson decided to
overhaul a decades-old business model. Who dominates the Chinese market in this space? What is Tyson’s new
business strategy for China? Describe the obstacles Tyson has to overcome to expand business in China.